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Marc Étienne, Francis Janot, Guy Lecuyot
La mission du musée du Louvre à Saqqâra: un contexte de rejets d’embaumement.
In the sector of the mastaba of Akhethetep Nile-silt jars, which once contained mummification residues, have been found. In some of these jars there are traces of "white" natron, "black" natron found in canvas sachets, small straw fragments, remains of blackened wrappings, fragments of papyrus fibres and other vases. Clearly, most of these jars were not in their original arrangement as they had been carelessly abandoned there. These jars probably have no relation with the modest burials located in the sand layers to the east of the mastaba and which date from the end of the Pharaonic period or the beginning of the Ptolemaic period. They most certainly come from a slightly older group of tombs which were probably located close by. All of the pottery fragments are made of Nile silt. The pieces include large jars for the most part, but also bowls, a bottle, and small dishes which may have been used as jar lids.
Le saint thébain Montouhotep-Nebhépetrê.
This article deals with the veneration of Mentuhotep-Nebhepetre, since his death till the end of the New Kingdom, by pharaohs and individuals. More than fourty documents showing the worship of this king are given in a chronological order, starting by the Middle Kingdom and ending by the New Kingdom. The documents are varied and the majority comes from Thebes, especially its western bank. Mentuhotep-Nebhepetre was considered as a theban "saint" certainly because he was the founder of this capital, its first builder and the owner of one of its most important sanctuaries.
- Khaled El-Enany
Sylvie Duchesne, Christiane Petit, Nathalie Baduel, Béatrix Midant-Reynes, Éric Crubézy
Le rôle des parures dans les cérémonies funéraires au prédynastique : l’exemple des sépultures d’enfants à Adaïma.
The status of adornment in graves, whether worn by the deceased or simply laid on or next to the body, can be explored by analysing eight predynastic tombs of children in the cemetery at Adaima in Upper Egypt. Following a thorough excavation carried out by anthropologists, archaeologists and experts in restoration, the diversity of different kinds of adornment became evident. This led the team to propose a reconstitution of the process of inhumation. The interpretation of the status of adornment was carried out by applying methods used in the anthropology of death. It thus became apparent that certain types of adornment were part of the funerary process, whereas others focused on the cultural or social aspect of the deceased. Only this last category can be used in a study of the socio-economic interpretation of funerary practices.
Hélène Cuvigny, Didier Devauchelle
Les avatars du chrysous dans l’Égypte ptolémaïque et romaine.
In Ptolemaic Egypt, xru!oË! (for xru!oË! !tatÆr) became an accounting device meaning 20 drachmas and corresponding to the deben of the demotic documents. In the phrase !uggrafØ trof›ti! érgur€ou xru!«n *k*a, érgur€ou is related to xru!«n, not to !uggrafØ trof›ti! as often surmised. It is doubtful that chrysous was ever used as a weight unit for gold in Greco-Roman Egypt, where the units in actual use were the mnaiaion and the tetartê, the tetartê being a quarter of a theoretical chrysous. The equivalence nb ḫm = tetartê and ʿ.wj wḫȜ = "pair of earrings" in the demotic marriage contracts, is proposed. P. Lille I 6 is the only Egyptian instance where chrysous is a weight unit, but for wool: in that case, it should correspond to the deben-weight. In Roman Egypt, xru!oË! or xru!oËn (scil. dhnãrion) refers primarily to the aureus. The old idea that the aureus, although not circulating in Egypt, was used in Lower Nubia to facilitate the trade with Ethiopia is shown to be wrong: it is only based on an ostracon from Pselchis and some proskynemata from Qirtasi; in these texts chrysoun means nothing but 100 drachmas (i.e. the theoretical value of an aureus).
Le parfumeur ([pa ant]).
The demotic title pȝ ʿnṱ had not been recognised hitherto, the scholars usually translate it as "the myrrh". Actually, the meaning of this expression was not the name of a kind of resin, but the designation of the "myrrh specialist" or the "perfumer". This interpretation enabled the author to suggest new tanslations of some well-known demotic texts, their former translations being unsatisfactory. The same title has been also found in some hieroglyphic and hieratic texts, from the Middle Kingdom onwards till the Ptolemaic period. As members of the temple staff, the "perfumers" regularly performed their professional activities inside the sacred precincts; some of them played an important role in the preparation of the ointments used for the human and animal mummification.
- Frédéric Colin ( : 117476145)
Michel Baud, Dominique Farout, Yannis Gourdon, Nadine Moeller, Aurélie Schenk
Le cimetière F d’Abou Rawach, nécropole royale de Rêdjedef (IVe dynastie).
After two seasons of investigations at the so-called necropolis ‘F’ of Abou Rawash, it has been possible to determine that the cemetery mostly dates back to the IVth Dynasty, and not to the late Old Kingdom as it is generally assumed. This is amply demonstrated by the monumental size of the mastabas, their architecture, pottery and other criteria, revealed from a number of newly excavated or re-investigated structures. The connections with the nearby pyramid of Radjedef (1.5 km SW) are not only established on those chronological grounds, but also from a number of similarities in material culture (e.g., pottery or mudbrick types) and the "royal" character of the masonry. Furthermore, two King’s sons at least were buried in this cemetery, both connected to Radjedef. The investigations also revealed a number of new data which demonstrate that, in the domain of elite burials, this reign is innovative in several aspects, from chapel plans to decoration.
Sydney H. Aufrère
L’origine de l’albâtre à la Ire dynastie d’après les inscriptions des vases provenant des galeries de la pyramide à degrés.
The paper is devoted to the origin of alabaster-calcite discovered in large quantities in the subterranean galleries of Saqqara Djoser’s pyramid, as well as to the subsequent problems. Thus, thanks to the inscriptions mentioned on the items worked in this material, as well as the titles and onomastics, it is possible to recount, from the First Dynasty onwards, a history of the production of this mineral which apparently takes place at this time in the area of the Oriental desert under the supervision of the Oryx’s nome. Being standard products of high cost, these containers were stored as sed-fest gifts meant for the sovereigns of the First Dynasty, certainly the Horus Adjib and Qaa, two kings whose names are incised or written in ink.
This tradition of alabaster containers production, under the responsability of the Oryx nomarchs, and the supervision of priests of Khnum – Egyptian god of the manufactured products – in charge of liturgical material before they would be sent to Memphis, survives until Djoser, under the reign of who a contemporary document bearing the name of -Imhotep recalls the title «hard stone vessel sculptor». Probably fed by the experience acquired with technicians of stone working, and also because he was in charge of such a work, Imhotep (tradition will keep the name of Djoser), according to the XVIIIth Dynasty texts of Djoser’s complex to which echoes Manetho, becomes at the beginning of the IIIrd Dynasty the initiator of stone layers building and systematic working of different quarries.
- Sydney H. Aufrère ( : 02831574X)
Bernard Mathieu (éd.)
Travaux de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale en 2001-2002
- Bernard Mathieu ( : 030609607)
Agrégé de lettres classiques, égyptologue, Bernard Mathieu est professeur à l’Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier 3 et ancien directeur de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire. Membre de la Mission archéologique franco-suisse de Saqqâra, Bernard Mathieu travaille principalement sur la langue et la littérature de l’Égypte pharaonique, de l’Ancien Empire à la fin du Nouvel Empire, ainsi que sur l’édition, la traduction et le commentaire des Textes des Pyramides. Sa thèse portait sur La poésie amoureuse de l’Égypte ancienne.
New Year’s Bottles from Tell Marqula (Dakhla Oasis).
Publication of four New Year’s bottles found in Tell Marqula during excavations carried out by the Antiquities Inspectorate of Dakhla (1988-1992). These bottles are dated to the XXVIth Dynasty and are inscribed with short inscriptions mentioning some names of divinities (Nebet-Hetepet, Ptah, Amun-Ra and Seth) and some proper nouns (Psammetik and Sethirdis).
- Sayed Yamani
Le dieu Thot au Qasr el-Agoûz [Djed-her-pa-heb], [Djehouty-setem].
Examination of some epithets related to the god Thoth from the Qasr el-Aguz, his temple having been built by Ptolemy Evergete II near Medinet Habu. This article includes a full discussion of the names Ḏd-ḥr-pȝ-hb, Ḏḥwty-stm and of related topics. The god Thoth from the Qasr el-Aguz is a specific form of the ibis god, implicated namely in the liturgy of the cults of Djeme. His principal epithet should be understood as "Thoth the setem-(priest)" (and not as "Thoth-the-hearer"). The Hypothesis of an oracular temple of Thoth is here rejected after discussion of the subject.
- Youri Volokhine ( : 086947532)