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AnIsl048.2_art_08.pdf (0.46 Mb)
Extrait pdf de l’ouvrage :
Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 31 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Ādāb wa-ṭuqūs šurb al-qahwa fī al-Qāhira al-ʿuṯmāniyya

تعد‭ ‬درا”ة‭ ‬القهوة‭ ‬من‭ ‬بين‭ ‬الموضوعات‭ ‬الرئيسية‭ ‬المدرجة‭ ‬تحت‭ ‬ما‭ ‬بات‭ ‬يعرف‭ ‬بـ‮«‬تاريخ‭ ‬المنبهات‮»‬‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يعالج‭ ‬واحدة‭ ‬من‭ ‬الجوانب‭ ‬المنسية‭ ‬أو‭ ‬المهملة‭ ‬في‭ ‬التاريخ‭ ‬الاجتماعي‭ ‬الحديث‭. ‬ولا‭ ‬يتعامل‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬المجال‭ ‬التاريخي‭ ‬مع‭ ‬المنبهات‭ ‬كسلعة‭ ‬مادية‭ ‬مزاجية‭ ‬أو‭ ‬ترفية،‭ ‬وإنما‭ ‬ينظر‭ ‬إليها‭ ‬كممار”ة‭ ‬ثقافية‭ ‬تحمل‭ ‬قيمة‭ ‬رمزية‭ ‬واعتبارية‭ ‬تعبر‭ ‬عن‭ ‬بعض‭ ‬عوامل‭ ‬الوجاهة‭ ‬والتمايز‭ ‬الطبقي‭.

في‭ ‬إطار‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬المنهجية‭ ‬يتحدد‭ ‬رهان‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬الدرا”ة‭ ‬على‭ ‬تحليل‭ ‬الآداب‭ ‬والطقو”‭ ‬التي‭ ‬تم‭ ‬نسجها‭ ‬حول‭ ‬مشروب‭ ‬القهوة‭ ‬في‭ ‬مصر‭ ‬خلال‭ ‬الحقبة‭ ‬العثمانية،‭ ‬وفهم‭ ‬”بب‭ ‬ارتباطها‭ ‬الشرطي‭ ‬بجماعة‭ ‬النخبة‭ ‬الحضرية‭ ‬التي‭ ‬اتخذت‭ ‬منها‭ ‬وسيلة‭ ‬للتعبير‭ ‬عن‭ ‬أحد‭ ‬مظاهر‭ ‬الوجاهة‭ ‬والمكانة‭ ‬الاجتماعية‭ ‬الممي“ة‭ ‬لها‭ : ‬فالقهوة‭ ‬لم‭ ‬تعمل‭ ‬في‭ ‬فراغ‭ ‬اجتماعي‭ ‬أو‭ ‬تاريخي،‭ ‬ولكنها‭ ‬لبت‭ ‬بدرجات‭ ‬متباينة‭ ‬احتياجات‭ ‬أ”ا”ية،‭ ‬عبرت‭ ‬عن‭ ‬جانب‭ ‬من‭ ‬ثقافة‭ ‬الا”تهلاك‭ ‬وكيفية‭ ‬الدفع‭ ‬بها‭ ‬نحو‭ ‬مركز‭ ‬الحياة‭ ‬الاجتماعية‭ : ‬فما‭ ‬هي‭ ‬اﻵداب‭ ‬والطقو”‭ ‬الخا’ة‭ ‬التي‭ ‬ارتبطت‭ ‬بهذا‭ ‬الم‘روب‭ ‬الاجتماعي،‭ ‬وما‭ ‬هي‭ ‬دلالة‭ ‬اقترانه‭ ‬بثقافة‭ ‬الق’ور‭ ‬وبيوت‭ ‬الوجهاء‭ ‬الأثرياء؟‭ ‬ب’يغة‭ ‬مغايرة‭ : ‬هل‭ ‬‮«‬فكرة‭ ‬الطقو”‭ ‬وخلق‭ ‬التقاليد‮»‬‭ ‬حول‭ ‬مادة‭ ‬ا”تهلاكية‭ (‬جديدة‭) ‬مثل‭ ‬القهوة‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬آنذاك‭ - ‬كانت‭ ‬حكرًا‭ ‬على‭ ‬جماعة‭ ‬النخبة‭ ‬أم‭ ‬أنها‭ ‬كانت‭ ‬مجالاً‭ ‬مفتوحًا‭ ‬تقا”مته‭ ‬كل‭ ‬الفئات‭ ‬الاجتماعية‭ ‬بدرجات‭ ‬مختلفة،‭ ‬كل‭ ‬بح”ب‭ ‬موقعه‭ ‬الاجتماعي‭ ‬وظروفه‭ ‬المادية‭ ‬وتكوينه‭ ‬الثقافي؟‭ ‬

الكلمات‭ ‬المفتاحية‭: ‬قهوة‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬مقاه‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬منبهات‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬القاهرة‭ ‬العثمانية‭ - ‬المجتمع‭ ‬التقليدي‭ - ‬التاريخ‭ ‬الا”تهلاكي‭ - ‬الثقافة‭ ‬المادية‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬ثقافة‭ ‬الق’ور‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬ثقافة‭ ‬وقت‭ ‬الفراغ

The study of coffee is one of the main topics that belong to the “History of stimulants” which deals with an aspect overlooked in the field of modern social history.

This field of study does not deal with physical stimuli as a commodity or leisure, but is regarded as a practice of cultural symbolic value, “phenotypic consumption” which expresses relievant aspects of social prestige and distinctions.

As part of this approach, this study aims to analyze the etiquette and rituals that have been woven around drinking coffee in Ottoman Egypt and to understand why they relate to the urban elite group, which took them as a way to express specific aspects of prestige and social status: coffee does not work in a social or historical vacuum, but responded with varying degrees of basic needs, expressed by the consumption culture and how to push it towards the center of social life: what were the morals and rituals associated with this social drink; what is the link with the culture of the palaces and the wealthy notables homes? In other words: was “the idea of the rituals and creating traditions” about a new material consumption such as coffee, the preserve of a group of elite, or was it an open-field shared to varying degrees by all social groups, each according to its social, material conditions and cultural formation?

Keywords: coffee – coffeehouses – stimulants – Ottoman Cairo – traditional society –consumption studies – material culture – palace culture – culture of leasure
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