Institut français
d’archéologie orientale - Le Caire

Verre byzantin et islamiqueByzantine and Islamic Glass

Maria Mossakowska-Gaubert

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Analytical Investigation of European Enameled Beakers of the 13th and 14th Centuries
JGS 37
The Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, 1995, p. 83-98
British Museum (LondresLondon)

[1250, 1400]
• Group of European medieval vessels - some caracterisitcs:
– colourless glass,
– most of the vessels are frustum-shaped beakers,
– the enamels are painted both on the outer and inner surfaces,
– Latin inscriptions,
– name of “Aldrevandin” inscribed on one of the beakers, has been given to the entire group of beakers.

• Review of hypotheses concerning the origin of these beakers:
– made for “Frankish” crusaders in a Syrian workshop - invented by R. Schmidt, C.J. Lamm: now considered improbable;
– Venice as a center of production - flourishing of enamel decoration on glass in Murano (between 1280 and 1350) attested by actes of the podesta of Murano: acts found and studied by Luigi Zecchin;
– produced in Central Europe - no documentary evidence has been found to support this view.

• Analyse of documenary evidence: documents from the Podestà of Murano.

• Chemical analyses of the samples from nine fragments found in Germany (Konstanz, Lübeck, Freiburg, Breisach) and one in Italy (Venice):
– colourless glass of the beakers:
SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, SO3, P2O5, Cl, TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO, PbO;
– decorative enamels : red, blue, white, yellow, green:
SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, SO3, P2O5, Cl, TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO, PbO, CuO, CoO, ZnO, SnO2.
– Compositions are similar to those of 15th - and 16th-century Venetian glasses and Islamic enamels.

• Venetian glass factories manufacturing “Aldrevandin” beakers employed raw materials and technology imported from the Middle East.
Allemagne Germany consommation
Angleterre England consommation
Italie Italy consommation
Venise Venice production consommation
Pologne Poland consommation
Suisse Switzerland consommation
Suède Sweden consommation

Version 5, données dudata date 30 janvier 2013January 30th 2013