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d’archéologie orientale - Le Caire

Verre byzantin et islamiqueByzantine and Islamic Glass

Maria Mossakowska-Gaubert

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TITE, Michael ; PRADELL, Trinitat ; SHORTLAND, Andrew
Discovery, Production and Use of Tin-based Opacifiers in Glasses, Enamels and Glazes from the Late Iron Age Onwards: a Reassessment
Archaeometry 50/1
University of Oxford, 2008, p. 67-84

[-1500, 1300]
Use of opacifiers:
• around 1500 B.C. to the Roman Period:
– use of the antimony-based opacifiers.
• 2nd to 1st centuries B.C.:
– tin-based used together with antimony-based opacifiers in the production of glass beads (found in Britain, France and Czechoslovakia).
• 4th century A.D. and later:
– tin-based opacifiers started to replace antimony-based ones in glass produced from the eastern Mediterranean throuh into northern Europe, but at the same time, antimony-based opacifiers continued to be used, or reused.
• Islamic Period:
– tin-based opacifiers used in the production of white opaque glazes in Abbasis Iraq (from the 9th century), and later spread throughout the Islamic world;
– tin-based opacifiers used in the production of yellow and white enamels applied to Islamic glasses from about the 12th century A.D. and Venetian glasses from about the 13th century A.D.

• Chemical analyses - high temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) using a synchroton radiation source:
– investigation of the phase transformations occurring when mixtures of lead oxide, tin oxide and silica are fired;
– amalysed elements: SiO2, Na2O, CaO, K2O, MgO, Al2O3, FeO, PbO, SnO2;
– remarks: differences in the tin-opacified glass, enamel and glaze compositions.

• Question with regard to the using and the origin of the tin-based opacifiers.

Version 5, données dudata date 30 janvier 2013January 30th 2013