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Roman monumental tombs in Ezbet Bashendi.
Study of a row of four stone mausolea in the necropolis of Bashendi (Dakhla Oasis). The first one, leaning against the famous Kitynos’s tomb (1st-2nd c. A.D.) is built in pharaonic style. The three others, quite identical, display features of classical style, especially pilasters on attic bases. The layout being a square (around 7,5 m), they were covered by a dome as can still be seen on the well preserved tomb 4 reused as Sheikh Bashendi’s qubba. These mausolea date back to the 1st-2nd c. A.D. They provide a landmark of the spreading of graeco-roman architectural patterns in Egypt during the Early Roman Empire.
- Sayed Yamani
Une désignation de la «face divine» [haout, haouty].
This article intends to look at the field of use of two related substantives, namely ḥȝwt and ḥȝwty, which both designate the divine face. The examples gathered here allow us to recognise various specific values. As evocation of a divine face, bearer of the uraei and of the crowns, the face ḥȝwt(y) appears in the private documentation as an object of piety. One wishes to «see» this divine face. It is also part of a theological reĠexion. In this respect we examine the values of the šf ḥȝwty epithet that usually refers back to the criocephalous manifestation of the demiurge. A collection of examples from the New Kingdom also reveals that the ḥȝwty (with graphies that bear witness of a duel), can be connected to the divine ship, bearer of the two prow and stern figures, criocephalic in the case of theban Amon, a manifestation of a divine face central to divinatory practice.
- Youri Volokhine ( : 086947532)
Une nouvelle interprétation du nom royal Piankhy.
The transliteration «Piy» or «Peye» for the name formerly known as «Piankhy» was first suggested by Priese in MIO (1968). The present study aims at reviewing the arguments of Prise’s article, and showing particularly that the sign of life in the royal name actually had a phonetic value. This name was however not genuinely Egyptian. It was certainly Old Meroitic, as Priese had felt. The Egyptian name p(ȝ)-ʿnḫ(y) was pronounced in Demotic [āpo n
- Claude Rilly ( : 095060952)
Le premier exemplaire du Livre de l’Amdouat.
The earliest-known version of Imy-Duat occurs on fragmentary inscribed limestone blocks now in the Cairo Museum. This documentation found in two separate tombs (KV 38 and KV 20) and customarily thought to form the decoration of the burial chamber raises many questions. The first part of the study is devoted to the discovery of the fragments and their subsequent registration in the Museum: unpublished information kept in the hand-written inventories confirm that the most important part of the objects – now exhibited in the Atrium – was found by Carter in KV 20. Among the few fragments recovered in KV 38 by Loret there are only two pieces which are exactly of the same kind, while the others belong to a second version of Imy-Duat written in larger scale on mud plaster. According to its size the Imy-Duat version reproduced on the limestone blocks looks like a copy on papyrus and seems hardly adaptable to an architectural context. Close examination of the inscribed blocks led us to question whether they were ever gathered together in order to line the walls or to be arranged in rectangular fashion around the royal sarcophagus. Some fragments give evidence of an ancient egyptian numbering system but these indications are very difficult to interpret because of the incomplete state of the documentation. The original location of the blocks and the subsequent attribution of the first version of Imy-Duat are discussed in the third part of the paper. Our final proposal takes into account the different observations mentioned above. We ascribe the limestone version to Hatshepsut in whose tomb the majority of the fragments were found and explain the situation as follows: uninscribed blocks intented to form the lining of the walls may be brought into the tomb (some of them were possibly numbered at the occasion), but the wall decoration was never carried out; some isolated blocks may therefore be reused as simple media in order to copy the funerary text on an indestructible material.
- Florence Mauric-Barberio ( : 19018728X)
À propos de la conspiration du harem.
This two-part article deals with the Harem Conspiracy. In the first part an analysis of the Judicial Turin Papyrus shows that this document is not "judicial", but is in fact a protection text of the deceased King against the acts of the deceased Conspirators.
The second part is a study of an unpublished Rifaud Text. The main results of it are:
a. The Varzy Papyrus belongs to the dossier of the Harem Conspiracy;
b. A magical practice of bewitchment was directed against the King himself;
c. Theurgy was practised in the Graeco-Roman Period.
- Yvan Koenig ( : 026951762)
Francis Janot, Catherine Bridonneau, Marie-Françoise De Rozières, Laurence Cotelle-Michel, Christian Decamps
La mission archéologique du musée du Louvre à Saqqara : une nécropole d’époque tardive dans le secteur du mastaba d’Akhethetep.
In October-November 2000, the archaeological mission of the Louvre museum at Saqqara brought to the fore new inhumations in the area of the mastaba of Akhethetep. Twenty five sarcophagi were thus excavated and studied. These are modest sepultures of late period (end of the dynastic period and beginning of the Ptolemaic). The burials remind of those already discovered on the Saqqara site around the pyramid of Teti and, more recently, of Anubieion.
Nessim Henry Henein
Du disque de Hemaka au filet hexagonal du lac Manzala. Un exemple de pérennité des techniques de chasse antiques.
The disc of Hemaka (Cairo Museum) is, to the best of my knowledge, the first representation of the hexagonal net. Inside the net two wading birds (storks, cranes or egrets) are depicted; in any case, they are waders.
My study on the present-day hunting techniques on the Manzala Lake showed that there are two types of hexagonal nets: one with a bottom and another without. The first is used in the hunting of waterbirds and divers (ducks, coots, etc.). The nets are stretched out in shallow water, and the bottom prevents the birds from escaping by diving under the net which, once closed, forms a prismatic bag.
In the case of crane and gull hunting, the nets could also be stretched out on the ground.
The second type of net, without bottom, is used for the hunting of waders walking in shallow water or on sludge, such as Ġamingos. It is conceived in such a way that the birds do not catch their feet in the stitches.
I have presented here numerous technical details, as well as comments on the importance of these observations for the knowledge of ancient hunting techniques.
- Nessim Henry Henein ( : 02691865X)
Architecte de formation, Nessim Henein fut d'abord engagé à l'Ifao par Serge Sauneron comme architecte de fouilles et chargé d’une prospection sur le site du monastère de Mari Girgis. Mais très vite, au-delà des relevés archéologiques, ses carnets de recherche ont traduit sa vision humaniste, son intérêt pour l’enquête ethnographique et pour le monde rural. Devenu ethnologue, ses enquêtes ont porté sur la vie quotidienne des habitants des villages et oasis d’Égypte et ses continuités observables parfois depuis l'Antiquité : l’outillage agraire, les techniques de pêche et de chasse, la culture matérielle, les processus de production et de fabrication en voie de disparition, mais aussi les cultures orales, avec une attention toute particulière aux faits de langage.
Contraception en Égypte ancienne.
Contraception and abortion were practised in ancient Egypt. Contraception was essentially a feminine concern. The medical preparations used for this were usually given per vaginam. The possible reason for these practises was the wish to avoid the complications of risky pregnancies and childbirths.
- Jacques Guiter
Ivan Guermeur, Christophe Thiers
Un éloge xoïte de Ptolémée Philadelphe. La stèle BM EA 616.
Edition of the stela BM EA 616 dated to year 29 (256) of Ptolemy Philadelphus coming from Xois. The only part of the text which is preserved contains a royal eulogy, dwelling on the relationship between the king and the gods of the xoite area. The learned priest who drafted this text shows his high degree of knowledge in qualifying the king, using a lexicon of childhood and divine images, and striving to mention the gods by rare epithets.
- Ivan Guermeur ( : 075706121)
- Christophe Thiers ( : 073982857)
Ancien membre scientifique de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, directeur de recherche au CNRS, Christophe Thiers a dirigé l’USR 3172-Centre franco-égyptien d’étude des temples de Karnak de 2008 à 2018, et a depuis rejoint l’UMR 5140-Archéologie des sociétés méditerranéennes (univ. Montpellier 3). Il oriente ses recherches sur les théologies thébaines tardives, en lien particulier avec les missions archéologiques et épigraphiques entreprises dans les temples de Karnak, Tôd et Ermant, et étudie la documentation hiéroglyphique « officielle » de l’époque ptolémaïque.
À propos d’un bas-relief ptolémaïque: le bloc Berlin Inv. 2116.
The inventory number 2116 of the Berlin Museum, a sandstone piece dating from the reign of Ptolemy VIII and representing an offering scene in relief, has always been regarded, for lack of anything better, as a block coming from Qasr el-Agouz temple. This origin can be set aside. A distinctive iconographical detail permits us to restore this block to the Eastern Temple of Karnak, on the top of the northern jamb of a door decorated during the ptolemaic period. It was a part of the lintel cut in several pieces during the XIXth century. The scene depicting a shedeh offering was probably associated with an another symmetrical scene of wine offering, as a frequent scheme requires it on both sides of a gift of maat.
- Laetitia Gallet ( : 082961816)