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COULON (Laurent), DEFERNEZ (Catherine)
La chapelle d’Osiris Ounnefer Neb-Djefaou à Karnak. Rapport préliminaire des fouilles et travaux 2000-2004.
Since 2000, excavations have been undertaken in the XXVIth dynasty Chapel of Osiris -Ounnefer Neb-djefaou located in the northern part of the temenos of Amun at Karnak. This small temple, whose remains were exposed during the XIXth century, has never been the subject of systematic study. In addition to the publishing of the inscriptions, the project’s focus is on the definition of the structure of the building and its relation to the neighbouring area, especially the path leading to the temple of Ptah and the adjacent mound that takes up a large part of the north-western corner of the temenos of Amun. The excavations have revealed several phases of occupation at the entrance of the chapel, from the XXVIth dynasty to the Coptic period, notably the reuse of several lintel blocks from the Saite chapel in a probably late Roman "hydraulic" settlement. Concerning the temple itself, whose mudbrick and stone walls were badly weathered over the last centuries, a preliminary reconstruction of its plan is suggested.
West of this area, the remains of a large mudbrick building, probably connected to the chapel, have been partly exposed. The pottery recovered in the upper levels can be dated to the Saite period or the end of the Late Period. The general interpretation of this structure is discussed.
Un temple en activité sous Domitien au Kôm al-Cheikh Ahmad (Bahariya) d’après une dédicace grecque récemment découverte.
A Greek inscription recently discovered in Kôm al-Cheikh Aḥmad (Baḥariya Oasis), -mentioning the praefectus Marcus Iunius Rufus, was probably, this discussion argues, a dedication to an -unknown deity of a building belonging to a temple, which dates to the reign of Emperor Domitianus. The site may have been excavated in the XXth century by Ahmed Fakhry. The author also studies the corpus of inscriptions dedicated to Roman emperors and dated according to the name of the praefectus Aegypti.
Varia Coptica Thebaica.
The article discusses inscriptions from forty-five previously unpublished limestone and -terracotta ostraca housed at the French Institute in Cairo with their transcriptions and translations.
The author argues for a Theban origin dating to the VIIth and VIIIth centuries B.C. based on internal criteria such as dialect and subject matter. Acknowledging the monastic context for the inscriptions, the author classifies the themes as epistolary – in particular requests and accounts – and writing exercises derived from prayers, biblical fragments and as yet, undetermined texts.
La pintade, le soleil et l’éternité. À propos du signe [...] (G 21).
The sign G21, identified by L. Keimer as a reference to the Guineafowl, Numida meleagris L., has the phonetic reading nḥ, which is also the bird’s name, Nḥ. It is commonly used in the writing of the word for cyclical eternity, Nḥḥ.
Nḥ is mentioned in funerary texts, connected to sunrise.
The palaeography of the sign G21, the study of the bird’s behaviour, and a careful analysis of funerary texts throw a light on the link established by the Ancient Egyptians between the -Guineafowl, the sun and cyclical eternity.
AUFRERE (Sydney H.)
Imhotep et Djoser dans la région de la cataracte. De Memphis à Éléphantine.
This paper reconsiders the delicate problem of Djoser and Imhotep, two well known figures during the Ptolemaic period in the region of the first cataract. Why is Imhotep, a popular Memphite personnage since the Old Kingdom, worshipped in the Elephantine area, far from his original cult centre? Is it possible to improve our knowledge of the process by which the Egyptians instituted a cult of Imhotep there? Is this cult based on local historical events which would have made the introduction of this Memphite demigod into the Elephantine pantheon easier?
Partly based on the analysis of the delicate problem of the Famine stela, the present paper gathers together the pieces of a puzzle, from Memphis-Saqqara and Hermopolis to Elephantine. It demonstrates that the cult of Imhotep in Elephantine probably emanated from both Memphite and Hermopolite religious traditions. This paper shows how the establishment of his cult at -Elephantine was based on a comparison of Imhotep with Ptah and Khnum and their influence on the development of embryo. Moreover, it shows that the specific characteristics of Imhotep were particularly appreciated during the Late Period because he was considered (as a son of Ptah and Khnum) able to use his influence with both deities, to accelerate the flood process and protect pregnant women.
Notes sur la zone minière du Sud-Sinaï au Nouvel Empire.
This article describes the mining expeditions led to South-Sinai during the New Kingdom. Using the epigraphic material, it shall point out to the various sites that were selected and describe the expeditionary forces: their number, organisation, their leaders and the roads they followed.
L’étoffe [sia.t] et la régénération du défunt.
The use of fabric sjȝ.t within the framework of the Ritual of the Embalming largely exceeds its material function. It forms part of a vast network of bonds – that this article tries to restore – referring to other elements of creation: Ġax, rising, sun, moon, etc.
La mise en place des pouvoirs divin et royal dans l’univers tentyrique ptolémaïque.
In spite of important damages on the south wall of the inner Hypostyle or room of appearence in Dendara, it was possible to determine that the four pictures, on the left side of the door form a coherent set. Through the power of the primeval god and god of creation Ptah-Tatenen, the universe of Tentyra gradually gets organised. The second and third pictures are in bad condition but we can guess that Montu is present and Thot, the god of learning, preserves the cosmic order he established. The top of the wall depicts the rising of the sun. The sungod Re-Horakhty appears and bestows integral kingship on Hathor. In her turn, the celestial goddess guarantees the investiture of the king who is charged with maintaining the cosmic order by specific rites.
«Rame» ou «course»? Enquête lexicographique sur le terme [hepet].
The word ḥpt is most often translated by "oar" although the numerous entries in the Egyptian dictionaries show the embarrassment of the Egyptologists concerning its exact meaning. In the Old Kingdom ḥpt was only written with the phonogram , ḥp. It never referred to the part of a boat (oar, rudder...) nor to another object, and the nature of the object depicted by this sign still remains undetermined. Ḥpt is a verbal noun made from the verb root ḥp(ỉ), "to run, travel", and exclusively describes a travel, either fast or not, either by land or not. Consequently, depending on the context, ḥpt may be translated by "course, travel, journey". The related verbal expressions ỉṯỉ ḥpt and, later and more rarely, ỉrỉ and ỉnỉ ḥpt are to be understood in the same way: "to make a travel, to travel". However, in the later part of his reign, King Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty introduced the oar-sign in place of the usual sign in the spelling of his throne name Nb-ḥpt-R.ʿ. Such a new spelling, based on ideological grounds, was certainly intended to emphasize the association of the king with the god Re aboard the solar bark in its daily course, in connexion with the ritual navigation for the god Amun-Re created in Thebes at that time. This writing of ḥpt with the oar-sign only became widespread from the Eighteenth Dynasty onwards. The oar-sign was then used either as determinative or as phonogram ḥp. This graphical change did not lead to semantic changes but aroused some ambiguity in the use of the word by the Egyptian themselves and in its understanding by modern scholars. Actually, the few examples in which ḥpt seems to mean "oar" (i.e. something like "the fast one") are rare and scattered through the Middle and New Kingdoms. Some of them, dating back to the Late New Kingdom, are of obscure meaning and their interpretation is still uncertain.
It appears that the basic meaning of ḥpt, often written as a plural ḥpwt and with various spellings, remained unchanged until the Greco-Roman era. We propose in conclusion to gather the eight entries allocated by the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache to a noun ḥpt under one single entry, with the general meaning "course, travel, journey". Secondary meanings like "oar" are definitely to be quoted as marginal and mostly doubtful ones.
De Douch (oasis de Kharga) à Grand (Vosges). Un disque en verre peint à représentations astrologiques.
During the Ifao excavations on the site of Douch between 1976 and 1981, three glass fragments bearing a very original painted decoration were discovered. They are surely related to another fragment which was found by the naturalist Cailliaud in 1818 on the same site. If we put all together, they will offer us the possibility to reconstruct and identify the representation of the thirty six decans, in a ring of twelve panels of three alternating colours (dark blue, red and gold) with three decans by panels. The analysis of the different groups of Roman painted glass which are issued from Egyptian workshops leads to date this piece to the IIIrd – IVth century AD. Its best parallels are the tabula Bianchini kept in the Louvre Museum and the ivory tablets from Grand. They help us to identify the different decans and to assign them to their zodiacal signs. This curious object, cut in a cast colourless annular base plate, was probably kept in a wooden box which hid the traces of reuse and was employed to cast horoscopes.