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Les relations diplomatiques entre les sultans mamlouks circassiens et les autres pouvoirs du Dār al-islām : l’apport du ms. ar. 4440 (BNF, Paris)
Due to the scarcity of documents that were exchanged between Muslim powers prior to the 16th century, the historian, in order to study the nature of these relations, is compelled to rely upon secondary sources such as copies that might have survived. A particularly fruitful and yet underused genre is represented by the collections of letters compiled, for the most part, by secretaries employed at the chancery of state. Of particular interest to the author and known since the 19th century is ms. ar. 4440 now held at the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris. This manuscript contains several copies of letters exchanged by powers pertaining to the Dār al-islām and the Mamluk Sultanate. The study of these documents provides the opportunity to understand the nature of relations between the Muslim powers and in particular the protocols that prevailed at the chancery. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the importance of this manuscript as well as to construct an inventory of the material that the document provides.
Keywords: Chancellery, Diplomatic, Relations, Mamluk Sultanate, Correspondence, Collections of letters (munša’āt), Embassies, Envoys.
- Frédéric Bauden ( : 055386857)
Dossier : Les conventions diplomatiques dans le monde musulman. L’umma en partage (1258-1517). Introduction
- Marie Favereau ( : 09465929X)
Marie Favereau est docteur en Histoire de l’université de La Sorbonne-Paris IV et de l’università degli Studi di San Marino. Après avoir été membre scientifique de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire, elle a travaillé comme chercheur à l’Institut des études avancées de Princeton et à l’université de Leyde. Depuis 2014, elle est membre du projet ERC Nomadic Empires et Research Associate à l’université d’Oxford où elle poursuit ses travaux sur les Mongols, les Mamelouks et l’histoire comparée des empires nomades.
Ayman Fuʾād Sayyid
مُجَلَّدَان جَدِيدَان مِن نُسْخَةِ كِتَابِ الأَغَانِي المُصَوَّرَة.Muǧalladān ǧadīdān min nusḫat Kītāb al-Aġānī al-muṣawwara.
The National Library of Cairo, the Royal Library of Copenhagen and the Fayzullah Library of Istanbul have volumes 2, 4, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 20 of a manuscript containing a miniature on the frontispiece of each volume. Recently, the author of this article discovered two new volumes of the same manuscript also written with the hand of Muḥammad b. Abî Ṭâlib al-Badrî between 614-1217/616-1219 at the Royal Library of Rabat which also has two new miniatures unknown by specialists in Arab painting.
The existence of these volumes in these libraries is an illustrative example of the voyage of volumes of only one copy of a work dispersed between four various libraries.
- Ayman Fuʾād Sayyid ( : 027125130)
المقرنسات الحمّادية وَوِجهات انتشارها المحتملة فى منطقة الحوض الغربى من البحر الأبيض المتوسّط.Al-muqarnasāt al-ḥammādiyya wa wighāt intišārihā al-muḥtamala fī mintaqat al-ḥawḍ al-ġarbī min al-baḥr al-abyaḍ al-mutawassiṭ.
This essay deals with Ḥammâdid muqarnas at al-Qal‘â city, located thirty-six kilometres north-east of al-M’sila Tower in Algeria. These muqarnas have been neglected by historians since their discovery during 1908-1967 by the greatest German historian of the muqarnas style, J. Rosintal in the first half of 20th century and his compatriot Yvonne Dold Samplonius currently one of the most well-known specialista in al-Kashi muqarnas.
This article begins with a survey of the opinions of historians of Islamic art about the Ḥammâdid muqarnas ; presentation of excavations and the deteriorating condition of the remains ; interpretation and re-composition of its original order ; and its technical influence on the sites in the Mediterranean, especially those found in Morocco, Andalus and Normand Sicily.
However Ḥammâdid muqarnas according to Oleg Grabar (1978), was a major regional center for muqarnas manufacture and its export to adjacent areas.
- Šarqī Al-Rizqī ( : 248401661)
Sāmī Ṣāliḥ ʿAbd Al-Mālik
النقش المراسيمى التذكارى لعمارة درب الْحاجّ. دراسة آثارية - تأريخية جديدة.Al-naqš al-marāsīmī al-tizkārī li-ʿimārat darb al-ḥāǧǧ al-miṣrī wa-l-aṯār al-bāqiya bi-ʿarāqīb al-baġl fī Saynā’ «Dirāsa āṯāriyya – ta‘rīḫiyya ǧadīda».
Ritual inscriptions on monuments found on the route of pilgrims through Egypt and the remains of ‘Araqîb al-Baghl in Sinai are signiﬁcant and rare in type and nature. The evidence presented in this article dates the second comprehensive architectural project on the route constructed during the time of Sultân Qânṣûh Al-Ghûrî and carried out by Prince Khayr Bik Al- Mi‘mâr. The work began at ‘Ajrûd to the north-west of Suez, passed several springs and fountains along the route before ﬁnally reaching its destination at Mecca and Al-Medina. The dating of the inscriptions have been subjected to damage both in antiquity and in more recent times.
Therefore, they are of uncertain date. Those who have conducted studies on this topic have attempted to establish chronologies for the dating of these inscriptions include Shmuel Tamari who concluded that the architecture was constructed some time between 914 and 915 H /1508-1509 AD.
A. H. Ghabban later set its chronology to the year 915 H /1509 AD. Contemporary research and investigation of historical sources, however, has uncovered an all important text indicating a different base for interpretation that may give some insight into the dating of such inscriptions. The consequences of historical events and the details of the architectural design of the Al-Ghûrî monuments along the route and in Mecca make it necessary to investigate for the first time the remains in the field together with ancient guard posts and other prominent monuments and sights.
- Sāmī Ṣāliḥ ʿAbd Al-Mālik ( : 248429655)
Hiba Maḥmūd Saʿd ʿAbd Al-Nabī
الدوادار الثانى فى مصرفى عصر المماليك الجراكسة.Al-dawādār al-ṯānī fī Miṣr fī ʿaṣr al-Mamālīk al-ǧarākisa.
The dawâdâr is the official responsible for bearing and keeping the royal inkwell. This office was created by the Seljuqs and it became well known in Egypt in the Mamluk era. During the Bahari period the dawâdâr did not rank among the important amirs, but under the Circassians he became one of the first-ranking amirs of the kingdom. His duties and responsibilities increased to the extend that they were distributed among several amirs ; dawadar kabîr, dawâdâr thânî (second dawâdâr) and so on.
The Circassian Mamluk era witnessed the rise of power and influence of some of the second dawâdâr-s such as : Qurqumâs al-Sha‘bânî, Janibek al-dawâdâr al-thânî and Bardabek al-Ashrafî. Most of the second dawâdâr-s of that period held the rank of amîr tablakhânah but some held the rank of amir of thousand.
In addition to the traditional duties of the second dawâdâr during the Circassian era, he accomplished many other duties ; some of them were religious, others were military or even social duties.
- Hiba Maḥmūd Saʿd ʿAbd Al-Nabī ( : 171543254)
Mirvat Aḥmad Al-Sayyid
إدارة الشرطة فى مصر فى العصر العثمانى.Idārat al-šurṭa fī Miṣr fī-l-ʿaṣr al-ʿuṯmānī.
This study deals with the subject of police administration during the Ottoman period in Egypt by examining the administrative structure of the police. It focuses on the importance of the roles that policemen played during this period. How did the state appoint them? How were they able to fulfill their roles of maintaining security ? What professional responsibilities were they given?
This research also explores the process by which the police were appointed by the Ottoman administration. Did judges have a role in appointing the police or was their role limited to registering these appointments in court to give them legitimacy ?
In addition to this, this study deals with the issue of whether the police system in the Ottoman period differed from the current / contemporary police system. What is different and what has changed in this system ? What has been passed down in the police system from Ottoman times and still exists in today’s police system ?
- Mirvat Aḥmad Al-Sayyid ( : 248401653)
Aḥmad Maḥmūd ʿAbd Al-Wahhāb Al-Miṣrī
مصادر دراسة الوثائق العربية الإسلامية.Maṣādir dirāsat al-waṯā’iq al-ʿarabiyya al-islāmiyya.
Four sources are the most important for the study of diplomatic documents in Arabic from the Islamic period.
1. The official documents :
The official documents are the most important source for the study of Islamic diplomacy. However, before using these sources a distinction should be made between the original and different forms of copied documents.
2. The Inscriptions :
Arabic inscriptions on Islamic monuments are very important sources for researching Islamic documents, because it is possible to prove that some of these inscriptions are typical copies from original documents.
3. Literary documents :
Literary documents are the text of documents in the historical books.
4. The translations :
Some Arabic documents have survived in the form of translation and are found in European archives.
- Aḥmad Maḥmūd ʿAbd Al-Wahhāb Al-Miṣrī ( : 248429558)
Ǧīhān Aḥmad ʿUmrān
ثيقة كشف على السواقى والمجرى السلطانى (دراسة وثائقية).Waṯīqat kašf ʿalā al-sawāqī wa-l-maǧrā al-sulṭānī (Dirāsa waṯā’iqiyya).
This research handles a documental study of a document copy registered in the second register of the High-Diwan Registers (al Dîwân al ‘Âlî) housed in the National Archives in Old Cairo (Fustât).
The document reveals the process of investigation and check-up carried out for the maintainance of the Sultan Water Wheels (sawâqî) of old Egypt and the Aquaduct during the Ottoman era in the 12th/18th century, specifically in 1181/1768 during the rule of Muḥamad Râqim Pasha (1181-1182 / 1767-1768).
The importance of this document is in the content of the legal actions of the check-up of each of the Water Wheels and the Aquaduct in order to re-build and clean-up the locations that required doing so, explaining the vital and crucial reasons that had led to this check-up : that is that the water supply ceased to reach the Citadel and it’s occupants as a result of the damage that occurred to sections of both the Aquaduct and the Water Wheels at various locations.
This document explains that this check-up was executed by the order and attendance of the Ottoman Pasha, as well as the attendance of the head judge and the high-ranking officers of the high-dîwân.
A group of high-ranking officers and engineers was specified by name in the document text designated as the checking committee ordered to detect the locations to be re-built, as well as measure and calculate the estimated costs required in Egyptian silver half fractions.
- Ǧīhān Aḥmad ʿUmrān ( : 193490250)
Isabelle Hairy, Oueded Sennoune
Géographie historique du canal d’Alexandrie.
From the end of the 4th century BCE, shortly after the foundation of Alexandria, to the dawn of the industrial era in the reign of Mohamed Ali, a canal served the town of Alexandria. Throughout 23 centuries, it allowed for the provision of drinking water as well as the development of the town’s agriculture and industries. Thus it was that Guiseppe Botti could exclaim “faire l’histoire de ce canal, c’est faire l’histoire d’Alexandrie”. To begin this history, the following study endeavours to establish an initial inventory of available sources that can unravel the major phases of the canal’s evolution. We have called it an “ historical geography ” of the canal since, on the ground, the ancient traces have disappeared. The texts of Roman historians and geographers, epigraphic documents, Arab chronicles on which we have depended are dated to between the 1st and 15th centuries of the common era. These documents tell of the work accomplished by the State. However, it is by diving into the body of travellers’ accounts, the largest documentary source, that we can enter into the life of the canal. We can follow the vagaries of its very name and watch its changing course over the centuries while, at the same time, discover the essential elements of which it was composed ; nilometers, quays, locks, bridges and iron grills. Thus, following the flow, we will attempt to present an account of its vitality throughout the eras by looking at the canal’s two principal functions : navigation and the provision of water to Alexandria.