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Une ère inconnue d’Égypte musulmane : l’ère de la juridiction des croyants
Two arabic papyruses, the first one dated from 42/662 and the second one dated from 57/676 reveal the existence of a lunar era with sunny monthes. This lunar era was used in juridic acts.
Keywords: Early Islam, Calendar.
Les sultans rasūlides du Yémen, protecteurs des communautés musulmanes de l’Inde (VIIe-VIIIe/XIIIe-XIVe siècles).
This paper presents a unique testimony with regard to the political and religious relationships between medieval Yemen and India. A document preserved in the Yemeni archives of the Rasulid Sultanate (1229-1454) enumerates 46 Indian cities in which Muslim predicators and judges were annually sponsored by the Rasulid Dynasty. These communities are predominantly situated in coastal regions, from Gujarat to Coromandel. The establishment of the Rasulid patronage on these Indian Muslim communities can be directly associated with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad. This situation allowed the Rasulid Sultan to exert a wider influence on the Muslim population living on the shores of the Indian Ocean. This patronage and influence remained in some coastal cities around Malabar until it was challenged by the conquests of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century. A letter sent from Calicut to the Rasulid Sultan in 1393 AD illustrates the situation. This article provides an annotated translation from Arabic into French of two documents outlining these events.
Keywords: Yemen, Rasūlid Sultanate, Muslim communities in India, ḫutba.
Monnaies et relations diplomatiques sous les derniers Zayyānides de Tlemcen. Quelques remarques sur des problèmes d’attribution.
This article will consider attribution problems raised by the coinage of the last Zayyanids of Tlemcen. The discussion is in response to fresh numismatic data as well as a restudy of chronicles concerning political relations between Marinids and Nasrids on the one hand, and Zayyanids and Ottomans on the other. Emphasis is given to a group of gold coins issued by the Zayyanids under the Ottoman Suzerainty during the first half of the 16th century. These coins bear in their legends reference to both political authorities: on one face the name of the Zayyanid and on the other face the name of the Ottoman Sultan.
It is on this issue that controversy between numismatists and historians exists. The coins concerned were initially attributed to the Marinids; the main criterion for the attribution was based on the political alliance contracted, according to Ibn Ḫaldūn, between the Nasrid Muḥammad III (701-708/1302-1309) and the Marinid Sultan Abū l-Rabīʿ (708-710/1308-1310). This alliance led, according to H. Lavoix, to a monetary association between the two rulers. However some decades later, a different attribution was advanced by H. Hazard for the coins in question. Doubt concerning the accuracy of these attributions continues among scholars and therefore the aim of this paper is to reconsider these attributions and discuss their historical and numismatic criteria.
Keywords: Coins of Tlemcen, the Last Zayyanids, Coin attribution, Political contracts.
Un exemple de « diplomatie en temps de guerre » entre les Mongols de Perse et les Mamlouks d’Égypte (701/1302).
This article investigates the issue of diplomacy in wartime, with specific reference to an instance concerning a letter from the Mamluk embassy to the Ilkhan Ġazān (701/1302). This letter was in response to an earlier missive from the Mongol ruler. According to two Arabic sources, this embassy led to an open discussion between the Mamluk ambassador (al-Muǧīrī) and the Ilkhan Ġazān. The words used by the Ilkhan take the form of a violent invective toward the Mamluks, blaming them for their immoral attitudes and negative behaviour. Al-Muǧīrī, the Mamluk messenger, counted “the insult” delivered by the Mongol ruler with an even more vindictive speech. Analysis of such behaviour, although appearing in the sources as spontaneous and violent in nature, allows us access to the mechanisms of expression and hostility within a diplomatic context as well as the political discourse underlining this specific situation.
Keywords: Ilkhanids, Mamluks of Egypt, Ilkhan Ġazān, Diplomacy, War, Embassy, Murdān, Tatar, Islam.
BROADBRIDGE (Anne F.)
Diplomatic Conventions in the Mamluk Sultanate
In this two part article, the author firstly analyses four published Mamluk chancellery manuals in terms of topics, organisation, their relationship to other works, and usefulness to modern historians. Secondly, evidence from these manuals and chronicles will be used to argue that diplomatic and ceremonial etiquette in the Mamluk Sultanate could be read by contemporary observers. This enabled the readers to understand important information with regard to politics both within the Sultanate itself and how the Mamluks approached relations with outsiders.
Keywords: Mamluk Sultanate, Chancellery manuals, Diplomacy, Ceremonies, Protocol, al-Ḥalabī, al-ʿUmarī, Ibn Nāẓir al-Ǧayš, al-Qalqašandī, Qalawūn, al-Ašraf Ḫalīl, al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, Barqūq, Toqtamïš, Crimea.
Comment le sultan mamlouk s’adressait au khan de la Horde d’Or. Formulaire des lettres et règles d’usage d’après trois manuels de chancellerie (1262-v. 1430).
This study focuses on the question of form and protocol that underline “the written connections” between the Mamluks and the Chinggisids of the Golden Horde. Our aim is to establish if the chancellery rules of the Jochids influenced the Mamluks and whether we are entitled to speak of a “cross-influence” between the Turkic, Mongols and Arabic epistolary practices of the time. The address to the khan by the sultans was governed by a strict set of rules. In order to shed light on these structures, the author wishes to make use of a corpus of letters that have until now remained an under exploited source. Although this source comprises of copied letters, it is reliable enough to enable us to recover part of the correspondence between the Muslim rulers. Moreover, it informs us about models and forms used by the chancellery secretaries, when constructing such diplomatic letters. This corpus is made of abstracts from chancellery handbooks written by three kuttāb al-inšā’ of the Mamluk Saltanate: al-Taʿrif fī-l-muṣṭalaḥ al-šarīf by Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī (d. 749/1349), al-Taṯqif fī-l-taʿrif by Taqī al-dīn Ibn Nāẓir al-Ǧayš (d. 786/1384) and the Ṣubḥ al-aʿšā fī ṣinaʿat al-inšā’ by al-Qalqašandī (d. 821/1418).
Keywords: Chinggisids, Golden Horde, Mongols, khans, Mamluks, Chancellery, Codicologe, Diplomatics, Diplomacy, Letters.
GALLOP (Annabel Teh)
Elevatio in Malay Diplomatics.
This article explores the extent to which the Islamic diplomatic practice of elevatio has permeated the chanceries of the Malay world in South East Asia. This honorific ‘elevation’ of a name or phrase from its normal position in the text to a more prominent position on the document, is described by V. Ménage in his seminal article published in 1985. In fact, no ‘true’ examples of elevatio can be found in the letters written in Malay, and although numerous examples illustrating the honorific elevation of the name of God can be documented in Malay seals from all over the archipelago, this practice appears to stem from a different source of authority. Nonetheless, a clear example of elevatio in a letter in Arabic from Sultan Alauddin Johan Sayah of Aceh serves to confirm that during the mid 18th century, the royal chancery of Aceh was fully aware of both principle and practice of this diplomatic nicety. Especially significant is the implication that different diplomatic traditions were deemed appropriate for documents in different languages issued from the same chancery, an important factor for consideration in any study of the diplomatic conventions of the Islamic world.
Keywords: Elevatio, Islamic diplomatics, Malay diplomatics, Aceh, Ternate, Malay seals.
On the Periphery of the Islamic World : Diplomatic Correspondence of the Nogays with the Russians
The Nogay ulus (appanage) seceded from the Golden Horde in the 1390s under the leadership of Edigü, a well known military commander and chief of the Turco-Mongol Mangit tribe. Up until this point Nogay Horde had occupied a vast territory between the Yayik (Ural) and the Lower Volga River. Consequently during the 15th – 16th centuries they became the significant Tatar successor state of the Golden Horde. After the Russian conquest of the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan (1552, 1556), it was only the Nogay Horde and the Crimean Khanate that represented any real danger to the eastward expansion of the Muscovite state. Similar to their Crimean Tatar relatives, by the 16th – 17th centuries the Nogays were able to pursue large scale diplomatic correspondence with Moscow. This correspondence has been mostly preserved within the Russian State Archives of Old Documents (RGADA) in Moscow. Fourteen volumes of the so-called “envoy books” (posol’skie knigi) and thousands of letters written in separate sheets (stolbtsy) are kept in fond 127 of the RGADA archive. Although the material contains numerous contemporary Russian translations of Tatar documents, the originals of which have been lost; a few dozen of the original Nogay letters have survived. These letters are written in Tatar using the Arabic alphabet. The Nogay-Tatar documents of the 16th – 17th centuries, virtually unstudied by scholars, form the core material from which the author wishes to present his findings. These documents provide important descriptions of how the Nogay chancellery functioned and in particular, associated diplomatic and linguistic characteristics.
Keywords: Nogay Horde, Nogay documents, Russo-Nogay contacts, Tatar chancelleries, Russian archives.
Les relations diplomatiques entre les sultans mamlouks circassiens et les autres pouvoirs du Dār al-islām : l’apport du ms. ar. 4440 (BNF, Paris)
Due to the scarcity of documents that were exchanged between Muslim powers prior to the 16th century, the historian, in order to study the nature of these relations, is compelled to rely upon secondary sources such as copies that might have survived. A particularly fruitful and yet underused genre is represented by the collections of letters compiled, for the most part, by secretaries employed at the chancery of state. Of particular interest to the author and known since the 19th century is ms. ar. 4440 now held at the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris. This manuscript contains several copies of letters exchanged by powers pertaining to the Dār al-islām and the Mamluk Sultanate. The study of these documents provides the opportunity to understand the nature of relations between the Muslim powers and in particular the protocols that prevailed at the chancery. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the importance of this manuscript as well as to construct an inventory of the material that the document provides.
Keywords: Chancellery, Diplomatic, Relations, Mamluk Sultanate, Correspondence, Collections of letters (munša’āt), Embassies, Envoys.
Dossier : Les conventions diplomatiques dans le monde musulman. L’umma en partage (1258-1517). Introduction