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Fichiers à télécharger
Kāna sa-yaf ʿalu et kāna sa-yakūnu qad faʿala. Les équivalents logiques du conditionnel français en arabe écrit contemporain
This article extends the results of a first study devoted to the Arabic verb combination kāna sa‑yaf ʿalu, and presents another and new combination, kāna sa‑yakūnu qad faʿala. It shows in particular how these two combinations are to be understood as the “logical” equivalents (from a linguistic point of view) of present and past conditionals of languages such as French and English, whether in the temporal uses of the conditional as well as in its modal uses. It ensures once again that kāna sa‑yaf ʿalu, if it can have a hypothetical counterfactual modal reading that French and English render by a past conditional to say what has not happened, has not, far from there, only this meaning and that it mainly expresses, in particular in its temporal and non-modal use, a present conditional reading such as the future of historians. The second combination, kāna sa‑yakūnu qad faʿala, allows to logically express the past conditional, which is the case in its modal uses as well as in its temporal use where it is then the equivalent of the future perfect of historians. Above all, these two combinations present themselves as immediately recognizable for what they are, unlike more classical forms that often risk exposing them to a first reading in the past of form AND of meaning and then to a second in order to restore the intended conditional meaning.
- Manuel Sartori ( : 081920164)
Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IEP, Iremam
Gowaart Van Den Bossche
The Maghrebi Vizier and the Haughty Copt. Historiography, Polemics and Narrative in a Mamluk‑Period Anecdote
In a widely cited historical anecdote from the year 700/1301, an unidentified Maghrebi vizier is portrayed as visiting Cairo where he becomes outraged at seeing inappropriate non‑Muslim behavior. He then instigates an important act of sumptuary regulation by appealing to the sultan and his advisors. This study argues that the various iterations of this anecdote found in sources from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries show how historians and other authors integrated polemical anti‑ḏimmī discourse in narrative historical form and participated in diachronic discussions about how an ideal Islamic society should be governed. By applying many discursive elements also found in contemporaneous anti‑ḏimmī texts to their historical narration, historians used the character of a bigoted Maghrebi visitor intervening to challenge perceived social wrongs as a rhetorical node to exemplify that ideal Islamic society in an evocative anecdotal form.
- Gowaart Van Den Bossche ( : 243129416)
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, KITAB project, The Aga Khan University Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, London
Le sceau de la paix. Le traité de 669/1270 entre Philippe III et al‑Mustanṣir al‑Ḥafṣī
The Eighth and last crusade organized by Louis IX in 669/1270 and aimed at Tunis ends in the king’s death; it leads to the conclusion of a truce for fifteen years between his son Philip III, Charles of Anjou and the hafsid sultan al‑Mustanṣir, which settles the conditions for the evacuation of the hafsid territory. The treaty, which is only preserved in its arabic redaction, is provided with an exceptional seal, only known example of a hanging seal from a muslim ruler. The diplomatic and codicologic analyse of the document shows its great interest for the study of the hafsid chancery’s practices and unveils the negociations process, the conditions of redaction and of ratification of all the clauses of the agreement. It is nonetheless an atypical document, written in haste in difficult circumstances, not by a professional from the chancery, and whose negociations have been led by an unexpected diplomatic actor.
- Mohamed Ouerfelli ( : 111221080)
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LA3M, Aix-en-Provence
L’errance sacrée de ˁAbdallāh ibn Salām
Muslim sources focused on the conversion of the Rabbi of Medina, ˁAbdallāh ibn Salām to Islam. However, his biography remains limited and majority of sources revolve mainly around his life in Medina. Indeed, none of the books studied refer to his mausoleum in Egypt, apart from a modest Arabic publication mentioning ˁAbdallāh ibn Salām mausoleum in an eponymous village of the Nile Delta where this emerging figure, in early Islam, is venerated by the local population. This raises the question of the memory journey, from Medina to Timay al‑Amdīd, of the first Jewish converted to Islam in 622, after his meeting with the Prophet Muḥammad.
- Jean-François Faü ( : 055791379)
La fidélité à la tradition. Chant et édition d’un panégyrique copte de Haute Égypte dédié à saint Théodore
This article deals with three variations of a panegyric dedicated to Saint Theodore the Oriental, a saint venerated by the Egyptian orthodox Coptic Christians, especially in Upper Egypt: A manuscript version preserved in the late Ottoman period, a printed version from the inter-war period and a contemporary record. We will shed light upon the Middle Arabic used in the manuscript version, and discussed the genesis of the text, we will focus on the editorial process as a reinvention and a bifurcation inside the textual tradition. With respect to orality, it will manifest itself in the recitation as a unique performance, as well as in the weft of the texts as a fantasized model and a trace of the older performances.
- Renaud Soler ( : 182996042)
Renaud Soler est agrégé d’histoire et doctorant à Sorbonne Université. Sa thèse porte sur l’écriture historique de la vie du prophète Muḥammad en arabe et en turc à l’époque ottomane, entre la fin du XVe siècle et le XIXe siècle. Il a publié Edward Robinson (1794-1863) et la naissance de l’archéologie biblique en 2014.
Aux origines du topos d’Anbā Wannas al‑Aqṣurī et des enjeux identitaires de la communauté chrétienne de Louxor au début du xxe siècle. Regards croisés entre l’« hagiotopographie » et la « pratique du mythe » de Lambros Couloubaritsis
The emergence of a hagiographic tradition relating the life, the spiritual qualities and the execution of the neo‑martyr Anbā Wannas al‑Aqṣurī expresses as much a problematic concerning the identity issues of the Christian community of Luxor at the beginning of the 20th century, as a means used by the guide of this community, Bishop Anbā Marquṣ, to legitimize the foundation of a holy place. This new sacred topography (the space) and the tradition that serves as its foundation (the myth) are respectively considered in the light of two approaches : the « hagiotopography » and what Lambros Couloubaritsis calls « the practice of myth ». The first aims to identify the historical and sociological reasons why, at the end of a process of dechristianization of the urban space (Sossie Andézian speaks about « rupture »), there is a need to create a new holy figure and to establish a new topos (S. Andézian speaks about « distinction »). The second allows us to analyze in depth the myth (the hagiographic tradition), to identify the cognitive mechanisms that make up its architectonic, and finally the reasons that explain its emergence.
- Emmanuel Serdiuk ( : 243129408)
Doctorant, Université libre de Bruxelles
Gaëtan du Roy, Manhal Makhoul, Perrine Pilette
Le miracle du Muqaṭṭam à travers les siècles. Origines et réinventions d’une légende copte
The miracle tale of the Moving Muqaṭṭam mountain has been circulating among the Coptic community for a thousand years. Nowadays, members of the Coptic Church still refers to it as an example of victory of the Christian faith over Islam. This narrative, even if it bears some fixed structural features, went through numerous variations throughout times. On the basis of its first attestation in the Coptic‑Arabic text of the History of the Patriachs of Alexandria, it was later further developped, mainly under an apologetic angle. Finally, it included the episode of the Caliph al‑Muʿizz—founder of Cairo in the 10th century—converting to christianity. In the 20th century, this was subject to considerable debate in the press. From the 1970’s onwards, a young preacher revigorated the famous narrative by founding a huge place of worship at the Muqaṭṭam, commemorating the miracle. This paper, which is the result of a collective work by a historian and two philologists, intends to offer a collaborative approach, where the history of texts is combined with the analysis of contemporary practices. This research shows that, even if numerous traditions have very old roots, they are always reinveted, depending on successive contexts in which they take place.
Une revue catholique d’Égypte à l’époque nassérienne. Ḥaqlunā, revue de l’Association de la Jeunesse catholique d’Égypte (1949‑1970)
After a brief presentation of Egyptian Catholic journals and newspapers of the twentieth century that can serve as sources, this article presents the most remarkable and most original of them: Ḥaqlunā (1949‑1970). It was initiated by the lawyer Pierre Cassab (Buṭrus Kassāb, 1913‑1986) to serve the Association of Catholic Youth of Egypt, founded in 1947. Giving news of the Catholic Church in the world, Ḥaqlunā was heralding the necessary role of the laity in the associations and in the Church. Valuable source for the reception of the Second Vatican Council (1962‑1965) in Egypt, the review was first animated by “Syrians of Egypt” of Greek-Catholic rite, like Pierre Cassab, or Maronite, like Michel Farah (Mīšīl Faraḥ). It is particularly attentive to the life of the Eastern Churches and the affirmation of Coptic Catholics as the National Church of Egypt. Towards the Coptic Orthodox, Ḥaqlunā, in an ecumenical spirit, supports the Renewal begun under Cyril VI. As for Islam, while faithfully supporting the conciliar orientations manifested in Nostra Aetate, Ḥaqlunā alludes to the concerns of Egyptian Catholics in the face of the Islamization of the Nasserian state. The feminine question finally, initially almost absent, becomes important in the 1960s.
- Catherine Mayeur-Jaouen ( : 03438197X)
Julien Auber de Lapierre
Le mécénat artistique en Égypte. Nouvelle approche de l’icône ottomane
Dans une société égyptienne ottomane très cosmopolite, un individu est défini par son statut social et son métier, puis par ses convictions religieuses. L’élite copte du xviiie siècle, suivant un usage aussi bien chrétien que musulman, met à profit l’essor économique de la province pour redistribuer une partie des fortunes acquises au profit de l’Église et de leurs coreligionnaires.Qu’ils soient fonctionnaires ou administrateurs, ils participent, à leur manière, à la renaissance artistique qui marque l’histoire de la peinture de dévotion au Caire. Par un partage de goûts communs, ils font preuve d’une conscience de groupe dans une communauté qui émerge à peine à cette époque. Ils ont toujours pris un soin particulier à ce que leurs noms soient indiqués sur les panneaux, au plus près des saintes images, à la recherche de l’intercession pour accéder au Paradis. Prolifiques mécènes, les nombreux travaux se succèdent et célèbrent leurs noms. C’est en confrontant cette nouvelle approche des chrétiens d’Égypte aux récits historiques et aux sources textuelles qu’il devient possible de redécouvrir sous un nouveau jour cette production. Les icônes portant ces dédicaces, souvent inédites, deviennent des témoignages éclairants de la construction communautaire copte.
In a very cosmopolitan Egyptian Ottoman society, an individual is defined by his social status and profession, and then by his religious beliefs. The Coptic elite of the 18th century, following both Christian and Muslim usage, takes advantage of the province’s important economic development to redistribute the acquired wealth for the benefit of the Church and their coreligionists.Officials or administrators, they participate, in their own way, in the artistic renaissance that marks the history of devotional painting in Cairo. By sharing common tastes, they show a consciousness group in a community that is just emerging at that time. They have always taken special care to have their names on the paintings, closer to the holy images, in search of intercession to Paradise. Prolific patrons, the works follow one another and celebrate their names. By confronting this new approach of Egyptian Christians with historical narratives and textual sources, it becomes possible to rediscover this production in a new light. The icons bearing these dedications, often unpublished, become enlightening testimonies of the Coptic community’s construction.
- Julien Auber de Lapierre ( : 225371723)
Julien Auber de Lapierre est historien de l’art, chargé de cours à l’École du Louvre. Ancien élève de l’École du Louvre, sa thèse de doctorat, préparée à l’EPHE, porte sur le renouveau de l’iconographie chrétienne dans l’Égypte ottomane à travers l’étude du peintre d’icônes Yuhanna al-Armani. En charge de l’examen scientifique des objets en bois du Musée copte du Caire depuis 2009, il est également membre de la mission archéologique de Fustat auprès de l’Ifao pour l’étude du matériel en bois.
Qirāʾa fī tarikat baṭriyark qibṭī min al-qarn al-sābiʿ ʿašr
This article is an attempt to place the history of the Copts into a broader context, that of Ottoman history and shows that Coptic history is closely linked to Egyptian history. Based on two sharia court cases, we can explain not only the period of transformation in Coptic history but also the history of Egypt at the end of the 16th century, which completed at the middle of 17th century. On the other hand, the article shows how the sources of the courts can be supplemented with Coptic sources, and that to better understand the 17th century, it would be necessary to use both of these sources. The two court cases studied here are only comprehensible when Coptic sources are taken into consideration.
- Maǧdī Ǧirǧis ( : 128557834)
Faculté des Lettres, Université de Kafr al-Sheikh