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Fichiers à télécharger
Les articles des volumes suivants sont vendus sous forme de PDF à télécharger:Bifao et AnIsl : numéros après la barrière mobile; BiEtud: numéros 110, 120, 138, 140, 165 (gratuit), EtudUrb: 9.
Patrimonialisation « sauvage » et archéologie industrielle de la musique yéménite : les premiers enregistrements commerciaux à Aden (1935-1960)
The first commercial recordings of Yemeni music were produced in Aden in the late 1930s, at the time of British colonization. These 78 RPM records were first published by a foreign company, Odeon, followed by several local companies, including Aden Crown, Jafferphon and Tahaphon. All of the urban musical traditions of Yemen—ṣanʿānī, laḥǧī, ḥaḍramī, etc.—soon gained recognition and were broadcasted throughout the country in the years between 1935 and 1960, in spite of the ban on music in the north. These first recordings, which are estimated to comprise several thousand records, are still largely unknown. Establishing a chronology has proven difficult, since the various documents that are available are never dated, and many other documents, such as articles from the press, are not currently accessible.
This research must therefore resort to a kind of “industrial and musical archaeology” which attempts to define approximate ranges of dates, periods and temporal correlations. At the same time, the current “wild patrimonialization” on the Internet of these music styles as a cultural heritage allows easy access to many sound recordings on mainstream platforms, particularly YouTube. While this represents great progress in the inventory process, it also implies a very haphazard storage solution for which researchers must try to compensate through increased efforts in documentation, in particular by the development of a database. The reception of the records by the Yemeni society during these twenty-five prolific years shows us that they had an important influence on the musical practice, as well as on a more subtle aspect of Yemeni music: the definition of regional genres which was of great importance in building the cultural identity of the Yemeni people, even until more recent times.
- Rafik Al-Akouri ( : 257319352)
Directeur du Centre du patrimoine musical du Yémen (Markaz al-Turāṯ al-mūsīqī al-yamanī), ministère de la Culture, Sanaa, email@example.com
Le disque, agent d’une subversion intégrale de la musique de tradition orale. Exemple du monde arabe
The introduction of the record album in the field of the oral music tradition brings about a break that is as abrupt as it is complete. On the one hand, as an example of objectification, the act of recording undermines the ontological status of the oral musical form; the latter, being fixed on the technical support, acquires a specific material reality and can, therefore, be freed from the traditional environment in which it had remained enclosed. On the other hand, record albums, as commodities, carry ontological reversal to a universal dimension, as a result of which the musical form incorporates the effects of mass commercialization. Hence, such a subversion results in an aesthetic phenomenon of disenchantment. This article analyzes this phenomenon in the cultural context of the Arab world through three symptomatic aspects: 1. increased aesthetic rationality; 2. the intrusion of heterogeneity into musical form; 3. aesthetic reification. In this regard, I refer to the thought of Critical Theory, and more particularly to certain categories developed by Walter Benjamin and Theodor Adorno.
- Anis Fariji ( : 164335307)
Séverine Gabry-Thienpont, Frédéric Lagrange
Introduction. Composition et archivage des musiques du monde arabe à l'aune des procédés d'amplification sonore
- Séverine Gabry-Thienpont ( : 174603096)
Séverine Gabry-Thienpont est ethnomusicologue, chargée de recherche au CNRS (Idemec) et ancienne membre scientifique de l’Ifao. Une part de ses recherches porte sur la fabrique des musiques égyptiennes en tant que fait esthétique, historique et religieux, à l’aune des procédés d’amplification sonore auxquels elles sont soumises.
- Frédéric Lagrange ( : 059320346)
Frédéric Lagrange, professeur de langue et littérature arabe à Sorbonne Université, travaille sur les productions culturelles arabes contemporaines. Sa thèse porte sur la musique en Égypte au tournant du XXe siècle, et il a participé à de nombreuses rééditions commentées de disques 78 tours de musiques savantes et populaires du Moyen-Orient.
Kāna sa-yaf ʿalu et kāna sa-yakūnu qad faʿala. Les équivalents logiques du conditionnel français en arabe écrit contemporain
This article extends the results of a first study devoted to the Arabic verb combination kāna sa‑yaf ʿalu, and presents another and new combination, kāna sa‑yakūnu qad faʿala. It shows in particular how these two combinations are to be understood as the “logical” equivalents (from a linguistic point of view) of present and past conditionals of languages such as French and English, whether in the temporal uses of the conditional as well as in its modal uses. It ensures once again that kāna sa‑yaf ʿalu, if it can have a hypothetical counterfactual modal reading that French and English render by a past conditional to say what has not happened, has not, far from there, only this meaning and that it mainly expresses, in particular in its temporal and non-modal use, a present conditional reading such as the future of historians. The second combination, kāna sa‑yakūnu qad faʿala, allows to logically express the past conditional, which is the case in its modal uses as well as in its temporal use where it is then the equivalent of the future perfect of historians. Above all, these two combinations present themselves as immediately recognizable for what they are, unlike more classical forms that often risk exposing them to a first reading in the past of form AND of meaning and then to a second in order to restore the intended conditional meaning.
- Manuel Sartori ( : 081920164)
Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IEP, Iremam
Gowaart Van Den Bossche
The Maghrebi Vizier and the Haughty Copt. Historiography, Polemics and Narrative in a Mamluk‑Period Anecdote
In a widely cited historical anecdote from the year 700/1301, an unidentified Maghrebi vizier is portrayed as visiting Cairo where he becomes outraged at seeing inappropriate non‑Muslim behavior. He then instigates an important act of sumptuary regulation by appealing to the sultan and his advisors. This study argues that the various iterations of this anecdote found in sources from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries show how historians and other authors integrated polemical anti‑ḏimmī discourse in narrative historical form and participated in diachronic discussions about how an ideal Islamic society should be governed. By applying many discursive elements also found in contemporaneous anti‑ḏimmī texts to their historical narration, historians used the character of a bigoted Maghrebi visitor intervening to challenge perceived social wrongs as a rhetorical node to exemplify that ideal Islamic society in an evocative anecdotal form.
- Gowaart Van Den Bossche ( : 243129416)
Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, KITAB project, The Aga Khan University Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, London
Le sceau de la paix. Le traité de 669/1270 entre Philippe III et al‑Mustanṣir al‑Ḥafṣī
The Eighth and last crusade organized by Louis IX in 669/1270 and aimed at Tunis ends in the king’s death; it leads to the conclusion of a truce for fifteen years between his son Philip III, Charles of Anjou and the hafsid sultan al‑Mustanṣir, which settles the conditions for the evacuation of the hafsid territory. The treaty, which is only preserved in its arabic redaction, is provided with an exceptional seal, only known example of a hanging seal from a muslim ruler. The diplomatic and codicologic analyse of the document shows its great interest for the study of the hafsid chancery’s practices and unveils the negociations process, the conditions of redaction and of ratification of all the clauses of the agreement. It is nonetheless an atypical document, written in haste in difficult circumstances, not by a professional from the chancery, and whose negociations have been led by an unexpected diplomatic actor.
- Mohamed Ouerfelli ( : 111221080)
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LA3M, Aix-en-Provence
L’errance sacrée de ˁAbdallāh ibn Salām
Muslim sources focused on the conversion of the Rabbi of Medina, ˁAbdallāh ibn Salām to Islam. However, his biography remains limited and majority of sources revolve mainly around his life in Medina. Indeed, none of the books studied refer to his mausoleum in Egypt, apart from a modest Arabic publication mentioning ˁAbdallāh ibn Salām mausoleum in an eponymous village of the Nile Delta where this emerging figure, in early Islam, is venerated by the local population. This raises the question of the memory journey, from Medina to Timay al‑Amdīd, of the first Jewish converted to Islam in 622, after his meeting with the Prophet Muḥammad.
- Jean-François Faü ( : 055791379)
La fidélité à la tradition. Chant et édition d’un panégyrique copte de Haute Égypte dédié à saint Théodore
This article deals with three variations of a panegyric dedicated to Saint Theodore the Oriental, a saint venerated by the Egyptian orthodox Coptic Christians, especially in Upper Egypt: A manuscript version preserved in the late Ottoman period, a printed version from the inter-war period and a contemporary record. We will shed light upon the Middle Arabic used in the manuscript version, and discussed the genesis of the text, we will focus on the editorial process as a reinvention and a bifurcation inside the textual tradition. With respect to orality, it will manifest itself in the recitation as a unique performance, as well as in the weft of the texts as a fantasized model and a trace of the older performances.
- Renaud Soler ( : 182996042)
Renaud Soler est agrégé d’histoire et doctorant à Sorbonne Université. Sa thèse porte sur l’écriture historique de la vie du prophète Muḥammad en arabe et en turc à l’époque ottomane, entre la fin du XVe siècle et le XIXe siècle. Il a publié Edward Robinson (1794-1863) et la naissance de l’archéologie biblique en 2014.
Aux origines du topos d’Anbā Wannas al‑Aqṣurī et des enjeux identitaires de la communauté chrétienne de Louxor au début du xxe siècle. Regards croisés entre l’« hagiotopographie » et la « pratique du mythe » de Lambros Couloubaritsis
The emergence of a hagiographic tradition relating the life, the spiritual qualities and the execution of the neo‑martyr Anbā Wannas al‑Aqṣurī expresses as much a problematic concerning the identity issues of the Christian community of Luxor at the beginning of the 20th century, as a means used by the guide of this community, Bishop Anbā Marquṣ, to legitimize the foundation of a holy place. This new sacred topography (the space) and the tradition that serves as its foundation (the myth) are respectively considered in the light of two approaches : the « hagiotopography » and what Lambros Couloubaritsis calls « the practice of myth ». The first aims to identify the historical and sociological reasons why, at the end of a process of dechristianization of the urban space (Sossie Andézian speaks about « rupture »), there is a need to create a new holy figure and to establish a new topos (S. Andézian speaks about « distinction »). The second allows us to analyze in depth the myth (the hagiographic tradition), to identify the cognitive mechanisms that make up its architectonic, and finally the reasons that explain its emergence.
- Emmanuel Serdiuk ( : 243129408)
Doctorant, Université libre de Bruxelles
Gaëtan du Roy, Manhal Makhoul, Perrine Pilette
Le miracle du Muqaṭṭam à travers les siècles. Origines et réinventions d’une légende copte
The miracle tale of the Moving Muqaṭṭam mountain has been circulating among the Coptic community for a thousand years. Nowadays, members of the Coptic Church still refers to it as an example of victory of the Christian faith over Islam. This narrative, even if it bears some fixed structural features, went through numerous variations throughout times. On the basis of its first attestation in the Coptic‑Arabic text of the History of the Patriachs of Alexandria, it was later further developped, mainly under an apologetic angle. Finally, it included the episode of the Caliph al‑Muʿizz—founder of Cairo in the 10th century—converting to christianity. In the 20th century, this was subject to considerable debate in the press. From the 1970’s onwards, a young preacher revigorated the famous narrative by founding a huge place of worship at the Muqaṭṭam, commemorating the miracle. This paper, which is the result of a collective work by a historian and two philologists, intends to offer a collaborative approach, where the history of texts is combined with the analysis of contemporary practices. This research shows that, even if numerous traditions have very old roots, they are always reinveted, depending on successive contexts in which they take place.