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L’exercice du pouvoir sur les communautés oasiennes de Gafsa (Tunisie) aux XVIIe, XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Pratiques et représentations
During the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the Gafsa region, South-West of the Ottoman Regency of Tunis, seemed to know a new era in the relations between the oasis communities and the central government. Various mechanisms were used by the Turkish military-political class to ensure the allegiance of local populations. The ratio of military force was maintained for the center through the permanent presence of a garrison of Turkish asker the Casbah of Gafsa, periodic stays of “Winter Mehalla” in Dār al-Bey, in the city center, and the makhzenisation of the neighboring tribes (Hamama). The establishment of a political and administrative system favored the recovery of some local notables. The collection of taxes by the central government was considered as the necessary price to guarantee public order, security and justice. The legitimization of power was reinforced by the instrumentalization of religion in its various forms. Perceptions of power by the local communities indicate changes in the degree of acceptance. Images, sometimes contradictory, of the power of “al-Turk” especially in the 17th century indicate that the population was torn between the fear of abuse and the expectation of a body that would guarantee security. In the 19th century, new concepts in the local discourse show a change in the perception of the state as a concrete component of the everyday life of the people. The exercise of power can be better understood when studied in terms of convergence of interests and interrelationships.
Keywords: Gafsa – Tunisia – Tunis (regency of) – Maghreb – oasis – exercise of power – political/religious.
WALKER (Bethany J.)
The Agricultural Dimension of Imperial-Peasant Relations in Mamluk Jordan
Far from the urban centers of military and political power, the Mamluk state maintained an unpredictable relationship with local peoples and attempted to exercise power over them in a way that could best be described as “managerial”. In many ways land was the key to the ever-changing power relations within the Mamluk elite and with local society. The complexities of these relationships are illustrated well in the case of the Transjordan, which comprised the eastern frontier.
This paper is concerned with two related phenomena. The first is the centrality of land in Mamluk policies in the Transjordan and the regime’s relations with local peoples. The second addresses the “decline” of the Mamluk state from the perspective of developments in the local agricultural regime, changing relations between producers and the state, and migrations of populations in Jordan, which were driven, in part, by regional political conflict and economic necessity. Adopting an Annaliste perspective on imbedded cycles of change, the rural sphere is interrogated as the locus of contestation and collaboration between ruler and ruled and provides a backdrop for assessing the transformations of the final century of Mamluk rule.
Keywords: mamluk – village life – iqṭāʿāt – agriculture – climate change – drought – Jordan – rural administration.
From Extortion to Obligation. The Creation of a Revenue Tax in 19th Century Egypt
Archival evidence suggests that Muḥammad ʿAlī, shortly after acceding to power in Egypt in 1805, took steps to emancipate political authority from its financial dependence on local notables by creating a broad-based tax levied on different socio-economic groups. This tax was based on economic activity, classified according to estimated profitability and location. There was but a short step between the invention of such a tax obligation and one based solely on individual revenue. Being engaged in a productive activity came to justify paying a portion of one’s revenue to the State – no longer as a forced contribution, but precisely because income-generating employment (especially in the form of salaried government work) could be presented as a privilege granted by the government. A much closer approximation to a pure income tax was instituted around 1855; in the 1860s, massive recruitment into the state apparatus took off once more after a hiatus, and a new law granted government staff a set of social guarantees. The institution of the income tax and its precursors as an expression of state power will provide the focus of this paper.
Keywords: Egypt – taxation – state-building – economic history – nineteenth century.
L’affaire al-Safṭī (1448-1450). Pouvoir souverain et usages de la légalité à l’époque mamelouke
This paper aims at bringing to light the modest causes that were the talk of Mamluk Cairo around 1450. The former chief Šāfiʿī qāḍī Muḥammad al-Safṭī met with legal troubles after having a brilliant career owing to Sultan Ǧaqmaq’s patronage and falling immediately after into disgrace. Charges were laid against him for debt, extortion or embezzlement of waqf assets. The lawsuits were put forward by the sultan as a pretext to seize the wealth of his former protégé. Such methods were usual in the Mamluk exercising of power. What is less regular is the fact that Sultan Ǧaqmaq strictly remained within the limits of lawfullness. Indeed the sultan secured his ends by laying back the charges, holding courts with the four chief qāḍī-s and playing with the fours maḏhab-s’ competition. Even though he could have exercised discretionary powers or have turned to the maẓālim court, he decided to follow the qāḍī-s’ judicial settlements in order to compromise his former protégé. During the Fifteenth century indeed, the Mamluk power’s acculturation to lawfullness was effective.
Keywords: justice – lawfulness – qāḍī – sultan – waqf – city order.
Réseau, pratiques et pouvoir(s) au début du xive siècle. L’exemple de Karīm al-Dīn al-Kabīr, administrateur civil dans le système mamelouk
The third reign of sultan al-Nāṣir Muḥammad is usually seen as a turning point in the political history of the Mamluk sultanate. Coming back to power in 1310, al-Nāṣir Muḥammad found the opportunity to implement economic and institutional reforms enabling him to consolidate and expand his house and his private domain. While during his two previous reigns al-Nāṣir’s authority has been reduced and his power controlled by the leading emirs, from the beginning of his third reign, the sultan managed to establish new practices in the exercise of power, which layed the foundations of a real court society in which the favor of the prince was the main way to promote individual, militaries and civilians. Al-Nāṣir Muḥammad encouraged the lightning rise and the enrichment of powerful civil administrators of the Mamluk state. One of them, Karīm al-Dīn al-Kabīr, intendant of the mamluk domain of the sultan, appears to be a crucial cog of the wheel of al-Nāṣir Muḥammad’s new power. Studying his career, his prerogatives and his relations with the sultan and the Mamluk emirs, the aim of this paper is to enlight the reality of al-Nāṣir’s power, which is usually depicted as absolutist.
Keywords: Egypt – mamluk sultanate – administration – power networks – clientelism – al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Qalāwūn.
BACHARACH (Jere L.), ANWAR (Sherif)
Coinage and their Visual Messages in the Age of the Sultanate. The Case of Egypt and Syria
The article identifies and interprets significant changes in the designs, script and other visual elements on gold and occasionally silver Islamic coins stuck in Egypt and when appropriate Syria beginning with those minted from the Fatimid era to the end of Ottoman suzerainty in 1914 C.E. For each chronological period interpretations that, in most cases, are not dependent on the ability of the user of the coin to read the engraved text in Arabic script. In all these cases the market or monetary role of the currency was far more important, initially, then their specific political messages, which, while inscribed on the coins were not signaled by visual clues. Over time a new style of coinage in terms of its visual appearance was created by the ruling sultans and it became the new standard.
Keywords: ʿAzīz ʿUṯmān – Abbasid – Aḥmad III – al-ʿĀdil I – al-Malik al-Kāmil – al-Mu’ayyad Šayḫ – al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh – al-Mustaʿlī billāh –al-Qā’im bi-Amr Allāh – ašrafī – Barqūq – Barsbāy – Baybars – fatimid – ismāʿīlī – kufic – mamluk – Mehmet II Fātiḥ – Muṣṭafā II – nasḫ – Nūr al-Dīn – ottoman – Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin) – sulṭānī.
Les sultanats. Des pouvoirs absolus, en interaction avec les sociétés qu’ils gouvernent
Après le temps des califats, marqué par des pouvoirs où le leader politique et le chef religieux sont confondus dans la personne du Prince, et avant celui des réformes (les Tanzimat) et de la naissance des États modernes, l’ensemble du monde musulman a connu, entre le Xe et le XVe siècle, l’apparition d’un type de pouvoir particulier, qui, dans certaines contrées, a perduré jusqu’à nos jours : le sultanat. Cette appellation est encore en usage à l’époque moderne, voire contemporaine, ce qui est le signe qu’on ne s’attendra pas à ce que ce terme recouvre une réalité unique.
La recherche collective que nous présentons ici voudrait, par l’examen de l’exercice du pouvoir, questionner cette forme particulière de leadership. Particulière, mais non homogène d’un sultanat à l’autre et même au sein d’un même empire: il convient donc, par les quelques études de cas rassemblées ici, de dégager le commun et le différent à ces pouvoirs dont les leaders sont des sultans.
ʿABD AL-RĀZĪQ (Aḥmad), AL-ŠAWKĪ (Aḥmad)
Aḍwāʾ ğadīda ʿalā kaʾs al-amīrʿAbd al-Ṣamd b. ʿAlī. أضواء جديدة على كأس الأمير عبد الصمد بن على
A glass goblet in the form of a rounded cup kept in the Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo was discovered at Fustat city in 1962. This lustered glass cup was famous as the goblet of al-Amīr ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Ibn ʿAlī and is 9.5 cm high and 13.5 cm in diameter. The decoration is painted in luster and the rim bears a simple kufic inscription that reads : “Bismillāh [al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm mimma ama]ra ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Ibn ʿAlī aṣlaḥahu Allāh wa ʿazza naṣruhu”. “In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. One of the things ordered by ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Ibn ʿAlī. May God make him prosper and his his victory be glorified”.
It is worth mentioning that when Scanlon first published this goblet he dated it to the year 155 A.H. / 733 A.D. He based his dating on the inscription, which bears the name ʿAbd al-Ṣamad, and whom he identified as the governor of Egypt for one month in the year 155 A.H. / 733 A.D. under the second Abbasid Caliph Abū Ǧaʿfar al-Manṣūr. Several other scholars in the field accepted Scanlon’s words without question. However, none of the historical sources mention the name al-Amīr ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Ibn ʿAlī among the Abbasid governors of Egypt at this date. Accordingly, and after further investigation in the historical sources, it became clear that ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Ibn ʿAlī was one of the Abbasid officers who held several high positions under the Abbasids. On present historical evidence, however, this study concludes that the goblet can be firmly dated within the years 136-137 A.H. / 753-755 A.D., which precedes the generally accepted date by about eighteen or nineteen years. It now seems certain that the technique of painting in luster on glass was developed in Egypt as early as the second century A.H. / eighth century A.D.
Keywords : ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Ibn ʿAlī – lustered glass – boblet glass – Abbasid – inscription – islamic art – Fustat.
NIǦM (ʿAbd el-Munṣif Sālim Ḥassan)
Al-ṣurra al-šarīfa fī ḥuggat qabḍ wa tasallum wa istiġlāl wa istīfāʾ (1290 H. / 1873). Dirāsa waṯāʾiqiyya. .الصرة الشريفة في ضوء حجة قبض وتسلم واستغلال واستيفاء (٠٩٢١ هـ/ ٣٧٨١ م). دراسة وثائقية
The Surra (bundle) for Mecca and Medina is the traditional money or funds sent by countries with the Haǧǧ caravan to be distributed among the poor of Mecca and Medina. Egyptian Sultans used to send Surra of money to Mecca and Medina with The Trustee of the Surra (who is responsible for its delivery cash remittance) who go to with Haǧǧ-journey and al-Maḥmal. This search publishes new document of Surra which khedive Ismail sent to Mecca and Medina in 1290 A.H – 1873 A.D.
Keywords : Surra – holy carpet – Maḥmal – piligrimage – money – piaster – palaces – coin – document – bundle – Mecca – Medina – poor – trustee – Egyptian sultans – khedive.
MOHIE (M.A.), MOUSSA (A.M.A.)
Diagnosis of Pigment Materials Affected by Air Pollution and Clay Minerals in Sabil Alkazlar.
In this study, pigment materials in the Sabil Al-Kazlar were studied using XRD, SEM-EDAX, light optical microscope, UV analysis and FTIR in order to determine their miner-alogical and chemical composition and to evaluate how these pigments were affected by air pollution and clay minerals. The pigments revealed are golden pigment as gold (Au), black as bone black, and red pigment as cinnabar (HgS). The wooden ceiling collating the render-ing layer on which the pigments were applied is composed of anhydrite and gypsum mixed with sand. Lead sulfide was detected in the examined cinnabar red sample which indicates the effect of lead as a pollutant on the deterioration of the wall paintings. Clay minerals de-tected in the plaster layer on the ceiling in the Sabil are kaolinite and a smectite-illite mixed layer. The detection of halite in all the studied samples indicates the effect of rising ground-water on the studied ceiling. The wall paintings in Sabil Al-Kazlar were created using tem-pera technique with a rabbit skin glue medium. The artist used the multilayer style using the gesso grosso and the gesso sotile techniques.
Keywords : Sabil Al-Kazlar – pigments – air pollution – clay minerals – gold – cinnabar – bone black – Xrd – Sem-Edax – Ftir – cross section.