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11 notices, page 1 : 1 - 2

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AnIsl048.2_art_01.pdf (5.4 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 57 p., 10 (182 EGP)

La barā’a : réflexions sur la fonction et l’évolution de la structure de la quittance (Ier-Ve/VIIe-XIe siècles)

Quels étaient la fonction et l’usage pratique de la barā’a, ce document à la fois juridique (attesté par des témoins), délivré par un tiers à titre de quittance, et officiel (non attesté) délivré par l’administration fiscale à ce même titre ? Parmi les raisons d’ordre pratique, structurel, diplomatique ou administratif, susceptibles de nous éclairer sur le sort juridique et administratif de la barā’a au cours des cinq premiers siècles de l’islam, lesquelles ont été déterminantes et pourquoi ? Dans quelle mesure ont-elles contribué à précipiter la disparition de la barā’a, supplantée définitivement par l’acte de reconnaissance (iqrār) dès le ve/xie siècle, puis ultérieurement, par d’autres types de documents similaires ? Revisitant l’évolution de la quittance à travers plusieurs études récentes de papyrologie arabe, cet article s’interroge en outre sur la corrélation entre les diverses formes textuelles et structurelles de la barā’a, et sur les aires géographique et culturelle qui les ont vu naître.

Mots-clés : barā’a – quittance – droit musulman – pratique notariale – administration fiscale – document juridique – document officiel – acte de reconnaissance – obligation

Documents regarding barā’a pertain to both legal documents delivered by a third party (attested by witnesses) and other official ones (not attested) delivered by the fiscal administration as such. Although textual editions on barā’a loom large in recent scholarship, its function and practice remain unresearched. What were the practical, structural, diplomatic or administrative reasons that determined the legal and administrative fate of barā’a during the first five centuries of Islam?

To what extent these very reasons contributed to its disappearance and total replacement by the the acknowledgement “deed” (iqrār) in the early vth/xith century, and subsequently by other similar documents? By reviewing the evolution of quittance through different studies of arabic papyrology, this article will examine the correlation between the various textual and structural forms of barā’a as well as the cultural and geographical areas where these forms appeared.

Keywords: barā’a – quittance – islamic law – notarial practice – taxation and fiscal administration – legal document – official document – acknowledgement – obligation
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 19 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Lettre d’un marchand d’Alexandrie de la collection Golenischeff à Moscou

L’article publie une lettre du Musée Pouchkine à Moscou, adressée par un marchand inconnu à un autre marchand inconnu. Elle peut être datée du début du iiie/ixe siècle. L’expéditeur donne des nouvelles de sept marchands qui semblent faire partie d’une même compagnie. Embarqués d’Alexandrie pour Tripoli de Syrie, aucun n’est encore revenu.

Mots-clés : marchand itinérant – compagnie de marchands – patron – salarié – voyage d’affaire – Alexandrie – Tripoli

This article publishes a letter kept in the Pouchkine Museum in Moscou, probably dating from the early 3rd/9th Century. The letter was sent by an unknown merchant to an another one, informing him about seven merchants who were probably partners in the same company. After leaving Alexandria for Tripoli, none of them had still return.

Keywords: travelling merchant – partnership in trade – employer – wage earner – business trip – Alexandria – Tripoli
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 35 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Al-Ḫilāfāt al-zawǧiyya bi-l-Maġrib al-adnā ḫilāl al-ʿaṣrayn al-fāṭimī wa-l-zīrī (296-555 H/909-1160 apr. J.C.)

تتناول‭ ‬تلك‭ ‬الدرا”ة‭ ‬علاقة‭ ‬التوتر‭ ‬والخلاف‭ ‬التي‭ ‬’بغت‭ ‬الحياة‭ ‬الزوجية‭ ‬لبعض‭ ‬الأ”ر‭ ‬المغربية‭ ‬خلال‭ ‬ع’ري‭ ‬الفاطميين‭ ‬وبني‭ ‬“يري،‭ ‬والتي‭ ‬كان‭ ‬للرجل‭ ‬والمرأة‭ ‬دور‭ ‬فيها،‭ ‬ولكن‭ ‬نتيجة‭ ‬الطابع‭ ‬الذكوري‭ ‬للمجتمع‭ ‬تجلى‭ ‬الدور‭ ‬الأكبر‭ ‬لل“وج‭ ‬في‭ ‬ظهور‭ ‬تلك‭ ‬الم‘اكل‭ ‬نتيجة‭ ‬ا”تخدامه‭ ‬’وراً‭ ‬متعددة‭ ‬للعنف‭ ‬تجاه‭ ‬الزوجة‭. ‬وقد‭ ‬تنوعت‭ ‬دوافع‭ ‬تلك‭ ‬الخلافات،‭ ‬والتي‭ ‬لا‭ ‬يمكن‭ ‬فصلها‭ ‬عن‭ ‬الظروف‭ ‬العامة‭ ‬المحيطة‭ ‬بالمجتمع‭ ‬موضوع‭ ‬الدر”،‭ ‬وإن‭ ‬احتل‭ ‬الم‘كل‭ ‬المادي‭ ‬رتبة‭ ‬الصدارة‭ ‬فيها؛‭ ‬وقد‭ ‬ت”ببت‭ ‬مجموعة‭ ‬من‭ ‬العوامل‭ ‬في‭ ‬تنوع‭ ‬ردود‭ ‬أفعال‭ ‬الزوجين‭ ‬تجاه‭ ‬تلك‭ ‬الخلافات،‭ ‬التي‭ ‬وصلت‭ ‬أحياناً‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬حد‭ ‬الضرب‭ ‬بالأيدي‭. ‬وقد‭ ‬بينت‭ ‬الدرا”ة‭ ‬الدور‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬قام‭ ‬به‭ ‬الأقارب‭ ‬والم‘ايخ‭ ‬والأولياء‭ ‬والقضاة‭ ‬والفقهاء‭ ‬في‭ ‬إ’لاح‭ ‬ذات‭ ‬البين‭ ‬والت’دي‭ ‬للخلافات‭ ‬وإ“الة‭ ‬الشقاق‭ ‬ورأبه،‭ ‬وإن‭ ‬لم‭ ‬تقض‭ ‬تلك‭ ‬الجهود‭ ‬على‭ ‬جميع‭ ‬الخلافات،‭ ‬التي‭ ‬ظل‭ ‬بعضها‭ ‬مستع’ياً‭ ‬على‭ ‬الحل،‭ ‬مما‭ ‬يدفع‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬فصم‭ ‬رابطة‭ ‬الزوجية‭ ‬باللجوء‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬الطلاق‭.

الكلمات‭ ‬المفتاحية‭: ‬بلاد‭ ‬المغرب‭ - ‬المرأة‭ - ‬الحياة‭ ‬الأ”رية‭ - ‬الخلافات‭ ‬الزوجية

The Study focuses on the stress and dispute relation that characterized married life of some Eastern Maghribi families during the Fatimid and Zirid eras. These disputes reflected the role of both man and woman with the domination of maleness, through battery and assault. The reasons behind disputes varied due to the general circumstances of the society under study, but mainly to the material problems. Different factors were cited behind the various responses of couples towards disputes and assault. The study explains the role of relatives, Sheikhs, judges, and men of law in reducing divisiveness, though their efforts could not rectify all the disputes, which sometimes continued insoluble till the marital bond was torn apart by resorting to divorce.

Keywords: Maghreb – women – family life – marital disputes
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AnIsl048.2_art_04.pdf (9.6 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 17 p., 10 (182 EGP)

The South Necropolis of the Fatimid Cemetery of Aswan

L’article résume l’étude de la nécropole sud du cimetière fatimide d’Assouan, entreprise par l’Institut allemand d’archéologie au Caire depuis 2006. Le projet a pour buts la documentation et l’analyse du site et de ses mausolées et, pour la première fois, l’analyse de nombreuses tombes modestes. Il inclut également des aspects historiques d’Assouan et tient compte de la protection de l’ensemble et de la restauration de certains monuments.

Mots-clés : Égypte – Assouan – fatimide – cimetière – typologie des tombes – nécropole sud – archéologie – restauration

The purpose of this article is to summarize the investigations of the South Necropolis of the Fatimid Cemetery in Aswan, carried out since 2006 by a team from the German Archaeological Institute (Cairo). The aims of the project are a thorough documentation and analysis of the site and its mausoleums and for the first time a large number of ordinary tombs. The investigation was extended to include some aspects of the history of Aswan and the preservation of the site and its monuments.

Keywords: Egypt – Aswan – Fatimid – cemetery – South Necropolis – typologies of tombs – archaeology – restoration
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AnIsl048.2_art_05.pdf (3.1 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 32 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Une lettre de Šaǧar al-Durr au futur sultan Quṭuz

Cet article contient une lettre exceptionnelle conservée au Louvre. Dictée par Šaǧar al-Durr après son abdication à un secrétaire apparemment d’origine turque, elle fut envoyée à Sayf al-Dīn Quṭuz le grand mamelouk du sultan Aybak son époux qui était alors le commandant en chef de l’« armée de Dieu ».

Mots-clés : Šaǧar al-Durr – al-Muʿizz Aybak – Sayf al-Dīn Quṭuz – allocation du mamelouk – « nous » de majesté – vouvoiement en arabe

This paper contains an exceptional letter kept in the Louvre. Dictated by Šaǧar al-Durr after her abdication to a secretary apparently of Turkish origin, it was sent to Sayf al-Dīn Quṭuz the great mamluk of the Sultan Aybak her husband who was at that time the commander-in-chief of the “Army of God”.

Keywords: Šaǧar al-Durr– al-Muʿizz Aybak – Sayf al-Dīn Quṭuz – allowance of the mamluk – Royal “we” – To adress as « vous » in Arabic
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AnIsl048.2_art_06.pdf (0.84 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 23 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Les munya-s et le patrimoine royal à l’époque nasride (XIIIe-XVe siècles). Entre le souverain et les élites

Ce travail analyse les munya-s, propriétés de plaisance des élites situées en périphérie des villes musulmanes, dans le contexte de la Grenade nasride (du xiiie au xve siècle) et leur rapport avec le patrimoine royal. Les munya-s faisaient partie de ces biens appartenant à la royauté et avaient une fonction ludique, productrice, aulique et politico-administrative ; elles servirent aussi de siège temporaire de la cour. Ces propriétés de plaisance existaient déjà dans la Cordoue émirale et califale et elles se sont conservées jusqu’à la fin de la présence musulmane en péninsule Ibérique. Leur gestion et leur exploitation revenaient au souverain et aux fonctionnaires de l’État, et elles contribuaient au maintien de ceux-ci ainsi qu‘à celui des membres de la famille royale.

Mots-clés : Al-Andalus – royaume nasride de Grenade – munya – patrimoine royal

This paper analyses the munyas, i.e., the country houses of the Nasrid elites in the outskirts of the Islamic cities in Granada, between the XIIIth and the XVth centuries and their relationship with the royal patrimony. The munyas were part of the royal household properties and were mainly used for leisure, productive, political and administrative purposes, as well as temporary court seat. These country houses were also found in the Cordova of the emirs and caliphs and they were still common at the end of the Islamic presence in the Iberian peninsula. Their management and exploitation were the responsibility of the King and of administrative authorities. The munyas served also to support the royal household.

Keywords: Al-Andalus – Nasrid Kingdom of Granada – munya – royal patrimony
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AnIsl048.2_art_07.pdf (14.8 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 25 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Nuṣūṣ ǧadīda hawl al-Qalāyya al-baṭriyarkiyya bi-Ḥārat al-Rūm

تهدف‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬الورقة‭ ‬إلى‭ ‬نشر‭ ‬وتقديم‭ ‬نصوص‭ ‬حول‭ ‬مقر‭ ‬البطاركة‭ ‬بحارة‭ ‬الروم‭ ‬على‭ ‬وجه‭ ‬التحديد‭. ‬وهذه‭ ‬الن’وص‭ ‬ت”هم‭ ‬في‭ ‬إعادة‭ ‬النظر‭ ‬في‭ ‬الروايات‭ ‬المضطربة‭ ‬والمتناقضة‭ ‬أحياناً،‭ ‬حول‭ ‬تاريخ‭ ‬مقر‭/‬مقرات‭ ‬البطاركة‭ ‬القبط‭ ‬بالقاهرة‭. ‬كما‭ ‬أنها‭ ‬تلقي‭ ‬الضوء‭ ‬على‭ ‬التفا’يل‭ ‬المعمارية‭ ‬لأحد‭ ‬البنايات‭ ‬المهمة‭ ‬في‭ ‬قاهرة‭ ‬الع’ر‭ ‬العثماني،‭ ‬وهو‭ ‬مقر‭ ‬بطريرك‭ ‬القبط‭ ‬الأرثوذكس‭ ‬بحارة‭ ‬الروم‭ ‬بالقاهرة،‭ ‬وكيفية‭ ‬تجهي“‭ ‬المبنى‭ ‬وإعداده‭ ‬لسكنى‭ ‬البطريرك‭. ‬وهذه‭ ‬التفا’يل‭ ‬قد‭ ‬تكون‭ ‬مفيدة‭ ‬للمهتمين‭ ‬بالعمارة‭ ‬في‭ ‬الع’ر‭ ‬العثماني،‭ ‬وعلى‭ ‬وجه‭ ‬الخ’وص‭ ‬التفا’يل‭ ‬المعمارية‭ ‬لسكنى‭ ‬رئيس‭ ‬طائفة‭ ‬دينية،‭ ‬ومن‭ ‬ثم‭ ‬يمكن‭ ‬للمخت’ين‭ ‬بهذا‭ ‬الشأن‭ ‬أن‭ ‬يستخلصوا‭ ‬ما‭ ‬‘اؤوا‭ ‬من‭ ‬الدلالات،‭ ‬أو‭ ‬يجيبوا‭ ‬عن‭ ‬أ”ئلة،‭ ‬ربما‭ ‬أحدها‭ ‬تحديد‭ ‬خ’ائ’‭ ‬معينة،‭ ‬لما‭ ‬يمكن‭ ‬ت”ميته‭ ‬عمارة‭ ‬قبطية‭ ‬في‭ ‬الع’ر‭ ‬العثماني‭. ‬كذلك،‭ ‬عدم‭ ‬وجود‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬الخ’ائ’‭ ‬يجيب‭ ‬عن‭ ‬أ”ئلة‭ ‬أهم‭ ‬طرحتها‭ ‬درا”ات‭ ‬تاريخية‭ ‬واجتماعية‭ ‬عن‭ ‬قاهرة‭ ‬القرن‭ ‬الثامن‭ ‬ع‘ر،‭ ‬افترضت‭ ‬وجود‭ ‬نمط‭ ‬ثقافي‭ ‬جديد‭ ‬لا‭ ‬يشكل‭ ‬الدين‭ ‬حدود‭ ‬’ارمة‭ ‬في‭ ‬ر”مه‭.

الكلمات‭ ‬المفتاحية‭: ‬القاهرة‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬القبط‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬الع’ر‭ ‬العثماني‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬حارة‭ ‬الروم‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬العمارة‭ ‬القبطية‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬القلاية‭ ‬البطريركية

The aim of this paper is to introduce and edit texts about the residence of the Coptic Orthodox patriarchs at Ḥārat al-Rūm in Cairo. These texts might contribute to reconstruct the troubled and, sometimes, contradictory narratives of the residence(s) of the Coptic patriarchs in Cairo. On the other hand, they shed light on the archeological details of an important building in Ottoman Cairo, which is the residence of the Coptic patriarch at Ḥārat al-Rūm; how this residence was prepared and equipped. These details might be useful for those who study the Ottoman architecture. Since it was the residence of the leader of a religious community, one of the questions that could be posed is: was there, what so called, a Coptic architecture in the Ottoman period? If yes, what were its elements and characteristics? If no, it could be an affirmation of certain social and historical studies assumptions, which suggested that a new cultural norm was drawn, a process in which religion did not play an important role.

Keywords: Cairo – Copts – Ottoman period – Ḥārat al-Rūm – Coptic architecture – Patriarchs’ cell
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AnIsl048.2_art_08.pdf (0.46 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 31 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Ādāb wa-ṭuqūs šurb al-qahwa fī al-Qāhira al-ʿuṯmāniyya

تعد‭ ‬درا”ة‭ ‬القهوة‭ ‬من‭ ‬بين‭ ‬الموضوعات‭ ‬الرئيسية‭ ‬المدرجة‭ ‬تحت‭ ‬ما‭ ‬بات‭ ‬يعرف‭ ‬بـ‮«‬تاريخ‭ ‬المنبهات‮»‬‭ ‬الذي‭ ‬يعالج‭ ‬واحدة‭ ‬من‭ ‬الجوانب‭ ‬المنسية‭ ‬أو‭ ‬المهملة‭ ‬في‭ ‬التاريخ‭ ‬الاجتماعي‭ ‬الحديث‭. ‬ولا‭ ‬يتعامل‭ ‬هذا‭ ‬المجال‭ ‬التاريخي‭ ‬مع‭ ‬المنبهات‭ ‬كسلعة‭ ‬مادية‭ ‬مزاجية‭ ‬أو‭ ‬ترفية،‭ ‬وإنما‭ ‬ينظر‭ ‬إليها‭ ‬كممار”ة‭ ‬ثقافية‭ ‬تحمل‭ ‬قيمة‭ ‬رمزية‭ ‬واعتبارية‭ ‬تعبر‭ ‬عن‭ ‬بعض‭ ‬عوامل‭ ‬الوجاهة‭ ‬والتمايز‭ ‬الطبقي‭.

في‭ ‬إطار‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬المنهجية‭ ‬يتحدد‭ ‬رهان‭ ‬هذه‭ ‬الدرا”ة‭ ‬على‭ ‬تحليل‭ ‬الآداب‭ ‬والطقو”‭ ‬التي‭ ‬تم‭ ‬نسجها‭ ‬حول‭ ‬مشروب‭ ‬القهوة‭ ‬في‭ ‬مصر‭ ‬خلال‭ ‬الحقبة‭ ‬العثمانية،‭ ‬وفهم‭ ‬”بب‭ ‬ارتباطها‭ ‬الشرطي‭ ‬بجماعة‭ ‬النخبة‭ ‬الحضرية‭ ‬التي‭ ‬اتخذت‭ ‬منها‭ ‬وسيلة‭ ‬للتعبير‭ ‬عن‭ ‬أحد‭ ‬مظاهر‭ ‬الوجاهة‭ ‬والمكانة‭ ‬الاجتماعية‭ ‬الممي“ة‭ ‬لها‭ : ‬فالقهوة‭ ‬لم‭ ‬تعمل‭ ‬في‭ ‬فراغ‭ ‬اجتماعي‭ ‬أو‭ ‬تاريخي،‭ ‬ولكنها‭ ‬لبت‭ ‬بدرجات‭ ‬متباينة‭ ‬احتياجات‭ ‬أ”ا”ية،‭ ‬عبرت‭ ‬عن‭ ‬جانب‭ ‬من‭ ‬ثقافة‭ ‬الا”تهلاك‭ ‬وكيفية‭ ‬الدفع‭ ‬بها‭ ‬نحو‭ ‬مركز‭ ‬الحياة‭ ‬الاجتماعية‭ : ‬فما‭ ‬هي‭ ‬اﻵداب‭ ‬والطقو”‭ ‬الخا’ة‭ ‬التي‭ ‬ارتبطت‭ ‬بهذا‭ ‬الم‘روب‭ ‬الاجتماعي،‭ ‬وما‭ ‬هي‭ ‬دلالة‭ ‬اقترانه‭ ‬بثقافة‭ ‬الق’ور‭ ‬وبيوت‭ ‬الوجهاء‭ ‬الأثرياء؟‭ ‬ب’يغة‭ ‬مغايرة‭ : ‬هل‭ ‬‮«‬فكرة‭ ‬الطقو”‭ ‬وخلق‭ ‬التقاليد‮»‬‭ ‬حول‭ ‬مادة‭ ‬ا”تهلاكية‭ (‬جديدة‭) ‬مثل‭ ‬القهوة‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬آنذاك‭ - ‬كانت‭ ‬حكرًا‭ ‬على‭ ‬جماعة‭ ‬النخبة‭ ‬أم‭ ‬أنها‭ ‬كانت‭ ‬مجالاً‭ ‬مفتوحًا‭ ‬تقا”مته‭ ‬كل‭ ‬الفئات‭ ‬الاجتماعية‭ ‬بدرجات‭ ‬مختلفة،‭ ‬كل‭ ‬بح”ب‭ ‬موقعه‭ ‬الاجتماعي‭ ‬وظروفه‭ ‬المادية‭ ‬وتكوينه‭ ‬الثقافي؟‭ ‬

الكلمات‭ ‬المفتاحية‭: ‬قهوة‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬مقاه‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬منبهات‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬القاهرة‭ ‬العثمانية‭ - ‬المجتمع‭ ‬التقليدي‭ - ‬التاريخ‭ ‬الا”تهلاكي‭ - ‬الثقافة‭ ‬المادية‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬ثقافة‭ ‬الق’ور‭ ‬‭-‬‭ ‬ثقافة‭ ‬وقت‭ ‬الفراغ

The study of coffee is one of the main topics that belong to the “History of stimulants” which deals with an aspect overlooked in the field of modern social history.

This field of study does not deal with physical stimuli as a commodity or leisure, but is regarded as a practice of cultural symbolic value, “phenotypic consumption” which expresses relievant aspects of social prestige and distinctions.

As part of this approach, this study aims to analyze the etiquette and rituals that have been woven around drinking coffee in Ottoman Egypt and to understand why they relate to the urban elite group, which took them as a way to express specific aspects of prestige and social status: coffee does not work in a social or historical vacuum, but responded with varying degrees of basic needs, expressed by the consumption culture and how to push it towards the center of social life: what were the morals and rituals associated with this social drink; what is the link with the culture of the palaces and the wealthy notables homes? In other words: was “the idea of the rituals and creating traditions” about a new material consumption such as coffee, the preserve of a group of elite, or was it an open-field shared to varying degrees by all social groups, each according to its social, material conditions and cultural formation?

Keywords: coffee – coffeehouses – stimulants – Ottoman Cairo – traditional society –consumption studies – material culture – palace culture – culture of leasure
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AnIsl048.2_art_09.pdf (0.46 Mb)
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 19 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Recruiting Egyptian Oarsmen for Ottoman Ships in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries

Cet article s’appuie sur six documents des registres du tribunal šarˁī de Rosette pour 1598 et 1632, traitant du recrutement de rameurs pour les galères ottomanes. Ils confirment que la procédure de recrutement était bien organisée. Les autorités recrutaient des hommes libres et non des esclaves, qui venaient de toutes les régions d’Égypte et de l’extérieur, les employaient seulement pour des campagnes saisonnières, et leur versaient un salaire fixe. Ces informations recoupent celles publiées par İdris Bostan sur le recrutement de rameurs par le pouvoir central pour ses campagnes navales de 1660-1661 en Méditerranée.

Mots-clés : Méditerranée – Rosette – flotte ottomane – galères – rameurs – recrutement

This study is based on six documents from the šarīˁa court of Rašīd from the years 1598 and 1632 relating to the recruitment of oarsmen for service on Ottoman galleys. The documents confirm that the recruitment process was well organized. The authorities recruited free men, not slaves, who came from all regions of Egypt and abroad, employed them only for seasonal campaigns, and paid them a standard wage. This data conforms closely with information published by İdris Bostan on the recruitment of oarsmen by the Ottoman central government for its naval campaigns of 1660-1661 in the Mediterranean Sea.

Keywords: Mediterranean – Rašīd – Ottoman Navy – Galleys – Oarsmen – Recruitment
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Annales islamologiques 48.2
2014 IFAO
, 51 p., 10 (182 EGP)

Architecture militaire française au Caire, de 1798 à 1801

De très nombreux articles et ouvrages ont été publiés sur l’Expédition d’Égypte, l’armée d’Orient ou l’occupation française du Caire. Pourtant, l’architecture napoléonienne en Égypte est un sujet qui a été complètement négligé par les spécialistes. Cet article a pour but de présenter un aspect méconnu de l’Égypte moderne, l’architecture militaire à la fin du xviiie siècle. Pour les Français, Le Caire est aussi un grand laboratoire pour les cartographes de son armée et pour les ingénieurs en charge des fortifications. De nouveaux modèles de forts vont émerger de cette expédition comme les tours-modèles. Les hommes du génie, décomplexés et libres sur cette terre d’Orient, vont essayer de nouvelles formes architecturales, et le temps d’un empire, vont s’affranchir des plans imposés par Vauban et leurs prédécesseurs. L’Expédition d’Égypte est une période charnière et les fortifications du Caire sont bien à l’origine de l’architecture militaire dite « napoléonienne ».

Mots-clés : architecture – militaire – fortification – Napoléon – France – Le Caire – bastion –tour-modèle – artillerie

Numerous articles and books have been published on the French Expedition in Egypt, the Army of the Orient or the French occupation in Cairo. However, the Napoleonic architecture in Egypt is a subject that has been completely neglected by specialists. This article aims to present an unknown aspect of modern Egypt, the military architecture in the late eighteenth century. For French, Cairo was a great field of experiments for the cartographers and for the engineers in charge of the fortifications. New models of forts will emerge from this Expedition as the ‘French Martello towers’. Military architects, uninhibited and free in the Orient, will try new forms and plan. The time of an Empire, they will overcome the plans imposed by Vauban and their predecessors. The Expedition of Egypt is a crucial point in the history of the fortifications of Cairo and they are at the origin of the military architecture known as «Napoleonic».

Keywords: architecture – military – fortification – Napoleon – France – Cairo – stronghold – Martello tower – artillery
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